uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Evaluation of building technology for mass producible millimetre-sized robots using flexible printed circuit boards
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
SiC, Electronics Department, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
IBMT, Fraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering, St Ingbert, Germany.
Show others and affiliations
2009 (English)In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 19, no 7, 11pp- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Initial tests of a building technology for a compact three-dimensional mass produciblemicrorobot are presented. The 3.9 × 3.9 × 3.3 mm3 sized prototype robot represents amicrosystem with actuators, sensors, energy management and integrated electronics. Theweight of a folded robot is 65 mg and the total volume is less than 23 mm3. The design of theinterfaces of the different modules in the robot, as well as the building technology, isdescribed. The modules are assembled using conductive adhesive with industrial surfacemounting technology on a thin double-sided flexible printed circuit board. The final shape ofthe microrobots is achieved by folding the flexible printed circuit board twice. Electrical andmechanical studies are performed to evaluate the assembly and it is concluded that thetechnology can be used for this type of microsystem. Several issues using the presentedassembly technique are identified and addressed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing , 2009. Vol. 19, no 7, 11pp- p.
Keyword [en]
microrobot surface mounting technologies microsystem autonomous flexible printed circuit boards
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Materials Science
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-108482DOI: 10.1088/0960-1317/19/7/075011ISI: 000267516800034OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-108482DiVA: diva2:236035
Available from: 2009-09-20 Created: 2009-09-20 Last updated: 2016-04-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Applications of active materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applications of active materials
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Energy efficiency is a vital key component when designing and miniaturizing self sustained microsystems. The smaller the system, the smaller is the possibility to store enough stored energy for a long and continuous operational time. To move such a system in an energy efficient way, a piezoelectrical locomotion module consisting of four resonating cantilevers has been designed, manufactured and evaluated in this work. The combination of a suitable substrate, a multilayered piezoelectric material to reduce the voltage, and a resonating drive mechanism resulted in a low power demand.

A manufacturing process for multilayer cantilever actuators made of P(VDF-TrFE) with aluminum electrodes on a substrate of flexible printed circuit board (FPC), has been developed. An important step in this process was the development of an etch recipe for dry etching the multilayer actuators in an inductive plasma equipment.

Formulas for the quasi static tip deflection and resonance frequency of a multilayered cantilever, have been derived. Through theses, it was found that the multilayered structures should be deposited on the polymer side of the FPC in order to maximize the tip deflection.

Both a large and a miniaturized locomotion module were manufactured and connected by wires to verify that the three legged motion principal worked to move the structures forward and backward, and turn it right and left. By touching and adding load, to a fourth miniaturized cantilever, its ability to act as a contact sensor and carry object was verified.

The presented locomotion module is part of a multifunctional microsystem, intended to be energy efficient and powered by a solar panel with a total volume of less than 25 mm3 and weight 65 mg. The whole system, consisting of a solar cell, an infra red communication module, an integrated circuit for control, three capacitors for power regulating, the locomotion module and an FPC connecting the different modules, was surface mounted using a state of the art industrial facility. Two fully assembled systems could be programmed both through a test connector and through optical sensors in the multifunctional solar cell. One of these was folded together to the final configuration of a robot. However, the entire system could not be tested under full autonomous operating conditions. On the other hand, using wires, the locomotion module could be operated and used to move the entire system from a peak-to-peak voltage of 3.0 V.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2009. 77 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 672
Energy efficient, microsystem, resonating cantilevers, microactuators, P(VDF-TrFE), surface mounting assembly, multi layers, flexible printed circuit board, conveyer, three legged
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Materials Science
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-108696 (URN)978-91-554-7609-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-10-30, 2001, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala, 10:15 (Swedish)
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-09-28 Last updated: 2009-10-09Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full texthttp://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0960-1317/19/7/075011

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Edqvist, ErikSnis, NiklasJohansson, Stefan
By organisation
Microsystems Technology
In the same journal
Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 466 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link