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Revision of the Eucoila/Trybliographa complex (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Figitidae: Eucoilinae)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Systematic Biology.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Eucoiline wasps are parasitoids of Diptera larvae in various microhabitats. They are by far the most species-rich subfamily of the Figitidae but they are poorly studied in general and the classification in particular is chaotic. Here, a taxonomic revision is provided of one of the more enigmatic eucoiline groups, the Eucoila/Trybliographa complex. This group is spread over the world, but significantly one of the most abundant groups of Eucoilinae in the Holarctic.

This complex includes rather large genus Trybliographa Förster, the type genus of the subfamily, Eucoila Westwood, and the two small genera Bothrochacis Cameron and Linoeucoila Lin. In the present work, more than 500 species-level names are considered, which have at some time or another been placed in this group, and it is concluded that 156 of them truly belong to the group. The circumscriptions of these genera are emended according to phylogenetic concerns. Eucoila is restricted to the species-poor "crassinerva group", a Holarctic group comprising large species attacking various calyptrate flies in dung and similar microhabitats. Bothrochacis is extended to accomodate all the Paleotropic species previously considered to be part of Eucoila; their biology is similar to that of Eucoila. Linoeucoila was previously believed to be endemic to Taiwan, but one new species is described from South Africa, extending the distribution range of the group considerably. The species-rich genus Trybliographa was previously considered to be Holarctic and exclusively parasitising Anthomyiidae, but here it is demonstrated that the genus occurs globally, and includes species attacking other calyptrate flies. It is extended to include all the morphologically transitional forms which were previously classified in Eucoila, the "floralis group".

All the known species are treated, and many are redescribed in full-length. 19 species are described as new to science: Eucoila primorskensis from the Russian Far East, Bothrochacis malaisei from South East Asia, B. iberica from south Europe, Linoeucoila laterostriata from South Africa, Trybliographa eofloralis from the Russian Far East, T. coprophila from northern Europe, T. merdaria from central Asia, T. dislocata from South America, T. longicella from South East Asia, T. bovina from Europe, T. ferruginea from North America, T. chrestosemoida from the Himalayas, T. pymi from Europe, T. japonica from Japan, T. vandynae from Europe, T. pedunculata from Europe, T. scandica from northern Europe, T. emblematica from northern Europe, and T. ptilicola from northern Europe.

A large number of new combinations and new synonymies are made. Inside the Eucoila/Trybliographa complex, 3 new genus-level synonymies are made (Pentaplastidia Weld, Psilodoropsis Hedicke and Lenobria Belizin are new synonyms of Trybliographa), plus 45 new species-level synonymies, and 26 new combinations, while one species is removed from synonymy. An additional 142 new combinations are made of the names considered that were found not to belong within this group. Furthermore, one new genus-level synonymy (Tetramerocera Ashmead as new synonym of Ganaspis Förster) and seven new species-level synonymies are made, and six new replacement names (nomina nova) proposed; even though such nomenclatural acts have not been part of the primary scope of the paper.

National Category
Biological Systematics
Research subject
Entomology; Systematic Zoology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-109393OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-109393DiVA: diva2:272340
Available from: 2009-10-15 Created: 2009-10-14 Last updated: 2010-01-14
In thesis
1. Systematics of Eucoilini: Exploring the diversity of a poorly known group of Cynipoid parasitic wasps
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Systematics of Eucoilini: Exploring the diversity of a poorly known group of Cynipoid parasitic wasps
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Many animal species are still undiscovered, even in Sweden. This thesis deals with the wasps of the subfamily Eucoilinae (of Figitidae, Cynipoidea), a poorly known group of small parasitoids of Dipteran flies. In this group, old classifications are chaotic, knowledge of old taxa is scant, phylogenetic work has recently started, and many new taxa remain to be described.

In this thesis, an identification key is given to the European genera of Eucolinae, and a tribal classification of the subfamily is reintroduced, based on recent phylogenetic results. Most of the thesis focuses on the tribe Eucoilini. That tribe is analyzed phylogenetically in two analyses, one based on a large morphological dataset, the other on two molecular markers, ribosomal 28S and mitochondrial Cytochrome B.

The monophyletic core group of Eucoilini is the Eucoila/Trybliographa complex. It is treated in a big taxonomic revision, based on studies of several hundred possibly relevant type specimens and several thousands of other specimens, and on the phylogenetic analyses.

More than 500 names of possible members of this group are investigated, and many new combinations are proposed, of species found not to belong within the group, as well as those that did, including some which are transferred to other genera in accordance with the new phylogenetic results. The new genus Quasimodoana is erected, and 20 new species described (8 from Northern Europe, 12 from elsewhere). More than 180 new combinations, more than 50 new species-level synonyms and ca 10 genus-level synonyms, are proposed.

Within this complex, the basal split is found to have been between a Paleotropic, specis-poor lineage (Bothrochacis), and a species-rich and largely Holarctic lineage, dominated by Trybliographa but also including the small genera Eucoila and Linoeucoila. The three are not satisfactorily resolved in the analysis, but still maintained as separate genera for pragmatic reasons. It is hypothesized that this group originated in Asia during the Eocene or Oligocene, attacking calyptrate flies in herbivore dung. Then it separated in a tropical branch retaining the ancestral life history mode, and a Holarctic branch, where some lineages specialised in Anthomyiidae and colonised the microhabitats of fungi and plants, speciating extensively in the boreal forests.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2009. 55 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 679
Keyword
Eucoila, Trybliographa, Eucoilini, Eucoilinae, Figitidae, Cynipoidea, Hymenoptera, phylogenetics, diagnostics, classification, taxonomy, systematic revision, morphology
National Category
Biological Systematics
Research subject
Entomology; Systematic Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-109400 (URN)978-91-554-7628-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-11-27, Zootissalen, Villavägen 9, Uppsala, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-11-06 Created: 2009-10-15 Last updated: 2009-11-06Bibliographically approved

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