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Late Ordovician brachiopod distribution and ecospace partitioning in the Tvären crater system, Sweden
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology. (Paleontologigruppen)
2013 (English)In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 369, 114-124 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Patterns of distribution and ecospace utilization of Late Ordovician brachiopods in a recently formed, contemporary meteorite crater are described and analyzed. Rhynchonelliformean brachiopod communities, dominated by a wide range of orthides and strophomenides, colonized the newly formed crater. At the crater rim communities were established early on, although the crater depression was not inhabited until deposition of the upper third of the remaining crater fill. The crater formed a protected but restricted microenvironment where sediments four times the thickness of the nearby basinal succession accumulated. Within this narrow space environments varied from shallow-water to deeper-waters, about 200 m in depth, and from well oxygenated to hypoxic. Such varied environments generated a rough ecological landscape, facilitating niche partitioning across a relatively small geographic area. Analysis of the guild structure of the fauna permits explanation of a local biodiversity hotspot in otherwise low-diversity strata elsewhere in the Scandinavian region. The Tvären impact event had an important palaeobiologic effect upon the fossil record as it served as a local pump and reservoir for biodiversity. Moreover the development of new community types and narrowly-defined niches helped further drive both α and β biodiversity during a critical phase of the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 369, 114-124 p.
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Historical Geology and Paleontology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-109567DOI: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2012.10.008ISI: 000315127200010OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-109567DiVA: diva2:273127
Available from: 2009-10-20 Created: 2009-10-19 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Late Ordovician Faunal Distribution and Ecospace Partitioning in Marine Impact Craters: The Aftermath of the Lockne and Tvären Events
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Late Ordovician Faunal Distribution and Ecospace Partitioning in Marine Impact Craters: The Aftermath of the Lockne and Tvären Events
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the Middle to Late Ordovician a boost of marine biodiversity occurred which is regarded as the most rapid diversity in Earth’s history, and termed the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event. This time is also unique in that at least four marine meteorite craters with a good record of post-impact sediments are preserved in Baltoscandia. Catastrophic impacts can serve as constructive events and produce wide-ranging environments providing new ecological niches for a diverse biota to occupy. Additionally, they generate distinctive patterns of biological destruction and recovery. This, and the study of distribution and ecospace utilisation of Late Ordovician faunas, has been analysed in two almost contemporary (around 455 million years ago) meteorite craters (Lockne and Tvären, Sweden). Within the confined space of the impact craters environments varied from shallow and reef-like to over 200 m in depth and from well oxygenated to hypoxic. These types of environments favored colonization of different individual groups. In Tvären rhynchonelliformean brachiopod assemblages from the shallow crater rim include a range of morphotypes, not established elsewhere in the crater. Within the crater depression rhynchonelliformean brachiopods were not established until the upper third of the remaining crater fill. Colonization of post-impact faunas varies dependent on topography, depth and susbstrate within the impact craters. This is recognised for scolecodonts in Tvären and for gastropod-like mollusks, linguliform and craniiform brachiopods in both of the craters, as they inhabit a wide range of ecospace. A succession of different taxa is observed from the deepest part of each crater and upwards towards inferably more shallow, higher energy, water settings. The development of new community types and narrowly-defined niches in the craters helped further drive both α and β biodiversity during a critical phase of the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2009. 45 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 685
Keyword
impact crater, Lockne, Tvären, ecospace, the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-109605 (URN)978-91-554-7639-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-12-04, Axel Hambergsalen, Geocentrum, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-11-09 Created: 2009-10-20 Last updated: 2009-11-12

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