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Proviral integrations and expression of endogenous Avian leucosis virus during long term selection for high and low body weight in two chicken lines
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Developmental Neuroscience. (Hallböök group)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. (Autoimmuna sjukdomar)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
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2009 (English)In: Retrovirology, ISSN 1742-4690, E-ISSN 1742-4690, Vol. 6, 68- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background:

Long-term selection (> 45 generations) for low or high   juvenile body weight from a common founder population of White Plymouth   Rock chickens has generated two extremely divergent lines, the LWS and   HWS lines. In addition to a > 9-fold difference between lines for the   selected trait, large behavioural and metabolic differences between the   two lines evolved during the course of the selection. We recently   compared gene expression in brain tissue from birds representing these   lines using a global cDNA array analysis and the results showed multiple but small expression differences in protein coding genes. The   main differentially expressed transcripts were endogenous retroviral   sequences identified as avian leucosis virus subgroup-E (ALVE).  

Results:

In this work we confirm the differential ALVE expression and   analysed expression and number of proviral integrations in the two   parental lines as well as in F-9 individuals from an advanced   intercross of the lines. Correlation analysis between expression,   proviral integrations and body weight showed that high ALVE levels in   the LWS line were inherited and that more ALVE integrations were   detected in LWS than HWS birds.

Conclusion:

We conclude that only a few of the integrations contribute   to the high expression levels seen in the LWS line and that high ALVE   expression was significantly correlated with lower body weights for the   females but not males. The conserved correlation between high   expression and low body weight in females after 9 generations of   intercrosses, indicated that ALVE loci conferring high expression directly affects growth or are very closely linked to loci regulating growth.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 6, 68- p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Developmental Neurosciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-110542DOI: 10.1186/1742-4690-6-68ISI: 000269300300002PubMedID: 19604406OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-110542DiVA: diva2:277243
Available from: 2009-11-16 Created: 2009-11-16 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Gene Expression in the Brains of Two Lines of Chicken Divergently Selected for High and Low Body Weight
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gene Expression in the Brains of Two Lines of Chicken Divergently Selected for High and Low Body Weight
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Artificial divergent selection of chickens for high and low body weight at 8 weeks of age has produced two lines: the high (HWS) and low (LWS) body weight chicken lines. In addition to the difference in body weight, the lines show extreme differences in feeding behaviour and body composition. The aim of this study was to uncover the genetic and molecular factors that contribute to and determine these differences, especially regarding body energy regulation and appetite.

In papers I and II, genome-wide gene expression in a brain sample containing hypothalamus and in dissected hypothalamus was analysed using DNA microarray and qRT-PCR. We found that levels of differential expression were generally moderate, which was consistent with the idea that polygenic factors were involved in the establishment of the chicken lines. Genes associated with neural plasticity, lipid metabolism and body energy regulation were differentially expressed. This result indicated that the neural systems regulating feeding behaviour and body weight were altered in the chicken lines. However, genes that were involved in the central melanocortin system were not systematically differentially expressed. Interestingly, the biggest differences in expression between the lines found in endogenous retrovirus sequences of the ALV subgroup E. Thus, in paper III, we characterized the number of integrations, the expression of ALVE retroviral elements and their effects on body weight. A significant correlation between low body weight and high ALVE expression was observed in female F9 birds from an HWS x LWS advanced intercross line. This implied that ev-loci contributing to increased ALVE expression levels were genetically linked to loci influencing the low body weight of the pullets. In paper IV, the carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1b gene (CPT1B), which was highly differentially expressed in the hypothalami, was investigated. We mapped chicken CPT1B to the distal tip of chromosome 1p. The levels of CPT1B mRNA in the HWS line were higher in the hypothalamus and lower in muscle than in the LWS line. This pattern of differential expression indicates that this gene could contribute to the remarkable phenotypic differences between HWS and LWS chickens. However, comparison with quantitative trait loci data showed that the expression of CPT1B is a trans effect, rather than a direct causative locus.

In conclusion, the data suggested that the long-term selection for body weight resulted in differential gene expression in the brains of the selected chicken lines. These results may have relevance for the poultry industry and will also contribute to increasing knowledge about human diseases such as obesity and anorexia.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2009. 62 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 484
Keyword
chicken, juvenile body weight, divergent selection, gene expression, DNA microarray, quantitiative RT-PCR, hypothalamus, neural plasticity, melanocortin system, endogenous retrovirus, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1b
National Category
Neurosciences
Research subject
Developmental Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-108455 (URN)978-91-554-7611-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-11-06, B42, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, BMC, 13:15 (English)
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Available from: 2009-10-16 Created: 2009-09-18 Last updated: 2009-11-16Bibliographically approved

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Ka, SojeongAndersson, LeifHallböök, Finn

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