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Selective antegrade cerebral perfusion at two different temperatures compared to hypothermic circulatory arrest: an experimental study in the pig with microdialysis
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Thoracic Surgery.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Thoracic Surgery.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Thoracic Surgery.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care. (Anestesi)
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2009 (English)In: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, ISSN 1569-9293, E-ISSN 1569-9285, Vol. 8, no 6, 647-653 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hypothermic arrest and selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (SACP) is widely used during aortic arch surgery. The microdialysis technique monitors biomarkers of cellular metabolism and cellular integrity over time. In this study, the cerebral changes during hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) at 20 degrees C and HCA with SACP at two different temperatures, 20 and 28 degrees C, were monitored. Twenty-three pigs were divided into three groups. A microdialysis probe was fixated into the forebrain. Circulatory arrest started at a brain and body temperature of 20 degrees C or 28 degrees C. Arrest with/without cerebral perfusion (flow 10 ml/kg, max carotid artery pressure 70 mmHg) lasted for 80 min followed by reperfusion and rewarming during 40 min and an observation period of 120 min. The microdialysis markers were registered at six time-points. The lactate/pyruvate ratio (L/P ratio) and the lactate/glucose ratio (L/G ratio) increased significantly (P<0.05), during arrest, in the HCA group. The largest increase of glycerol was found in the group with tepid cerebral perfusion (28 degrees C) and the HCA group (P<0.05). This study supports the use of SACP over arrest. It also suggests that cerebral metabolism and cellular membrane integrity may be better preserved with SACP at 20 degrees C compared to 28 degrees C.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 8, no 6, 647-653 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-110757DOI: 10.1510/icvts.2008.200048PubMedID: 19324918OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-110757DiVA: diva2:278199
Available from: 2009-11-24 Created: 2009-11-24 Last updated: 2015-06-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Cerebral Perfusion and Metabolism during Experimental Extracorporeal Circulation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cerebral Perfusion and Metabolism during Experimental Extracorporeal Circulation
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Neurologic injuries are major causes of mortality and morbidity after cardiac surgery. This thesis aimed to investigate cerebral metabolism and perfusion abnormalities in pigs during hypothermic circulatory arrest, selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (SACP) and extracorporeal circulation following progressive venous stasis.

Hypothermic circulatory arrest induced a metabolic pattern consistent with overt ischaemia, which was absent following SACP. In contrast, metabolism during SACP was influenced by the perfusate temperature, where a colder perfusate (20 °C) preserved cellular metabolism and membrane integrity better than a warmer perfusate (28 °C).

The minimum SACP flow required to maintain metabolism during hypothermia at 20 °C was investigated with magnetic resonance imaging, protein S100β, near infrared spectroscopy and microdialysis. The findings suggested an ischaemic threshold close to 6 ml/kg/min in the present models. Furthermore, regional differences in perfusion with a hemispheric distribution were apparent at all flow levels and differed from earlier studies where the differences were uniform and followed a neuranatomical pattern.

Venus stasis following superior vena cava congestion produced measurable signs of impaired cerebral perfusion and patterns of cerebral ischaemia were evident in individual animals. As venous pressure increased, the mean arterial pressure stayed more or less unchanged, generating reduced cerebral perfusion pressure and consequently an increased risk of ischaemia, which may impair cerebral perfusion, especially in cases of compromised arterial flow during extracorporeal circulation.

In conclusion, cerebral metabolism and perfusion are influenced by temperature, SACP flow levels and venous congestion. In clinical practice, the regional differences in perfusion during SACP may be of pathogenic importance in focal cerebral ischaemia. Furthermore, the reduced superior vena cava cannula flow may pass undetected during bicaval cardiopulmonary bypass if the superior vena cava flow is not specifically monitored.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2011. 85 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 649
cerebral perfusion
National Category
Research subject
Thorax Surgery
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-147486 (URN)978-91-554-8016-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-04-08, Enghovssalen, Hus 50,, Thoraxkliniken, Akademiska Sjukuset, 17185, Uppsala, 13:15 (Swedish)
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2011-03-17 Created: 2011-02-25 Last updated: 2011-05-04Bibliographically approved

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Jonsson, OveValtysson, JohannThelin, Stefan
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Thoracic SurgeryAnaesthesiology and Intensive CareDepartment of Neuroscience
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