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Prenatal sex differences in the human brain
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Animal Development and Genetics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Animal Development and Genetics.
2009 (English)In: Molecular Psychiatry, ISSN 1359-4184, E-ISSN 1476-5578, Vol. 14, no 11, 988-989 p.Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London, UK: Nature Publishing Group , 2009. Vol. 14, no 11, 988-989 p.
Keyword [en]
sex, brain, gene expression, sex differences, sexual dimorphism, human, Y, Y chromosome, Y-chromosome
National Category
Developmental Biology
Research subject
Genetics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-112066DOI: 10.1038/mp.2009.79ISI: 000271022100001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-112066DiVA: diva2:284747
Available from: 2010-01-08 Created: 2010-01-08 Last updated: 2011-08-26Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Sexually Dimorphic Gene Expression in the Mammalian Brain
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sexually Dimorphic Gene Expression in the Mammalian Brain
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In recent times, major advances have been made towards understanding sexual dimorphism in the brain on a molecular basis. This thesis summarises my modest contributions to these endeavours. Sexual dimorphisms are manifested throughout the spectrum of biological complexity, and can be studied by numerous approaches. The approach of this thesis is to explore sex-biased gene expression in mammalian somatic tissues. Paper I describes an evolutionarily conserved sexual gene expression pattern in the primate brain. Conserved sex-biased genes may underlie important sex differences in neurobiology. In Paper II, Y-chromosome genes expressed across several regions of the human male brain during mid-gestation are identified. Such genes may play male-specific roles during brain development. The studies of Papers III and IV explore sex-biased gene expression in several somatic tissues from mouse. The amount of genes with sex-biased expression varied in different brain regions. The striatum was particularly interesting, with an order of magnitude increase in the number of sex-biased genes as compared to the other included brain regions. Of potentially wider significance are my observations regarding the transcriptional regulation of domains that escape X-chromosome inactivation (XCI). Specifically, I provide the first evidence that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) transcribe together with protein-coding genes in XCI-escaping domains. This raises the possibility that lncRNAs mediate the transcriptional regulation of XCI-escaping domains. I also present evidence that the mouse X-chromosome has undergone both feminisation and de-masculinisation during evolution, as indicated by the sex-skewed regulation of genes on this chromosome. This finding is relevant for understanding the selective forces that shaped the mammalian X-chromosome. In the final chapter, Paper V, the generation of a novel transgenic mouse line, Gpr101-Cre, is described. Its progeny can be used for functional studies of striatum, a brain structure with major sexual dimorphism, as is further demonstrated in the Papers of this thesis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2011. 57 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 840
National Category
Developmental Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-156640 (URN)978-91-554-8118-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-09-16, Zootissalen (EBC 01.01006), Evolutionsbiologiskt centrum, EBC, Norbyvägen, Uppsala, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-08-26 Created: 2011-08-04 Last updated: 2011-11-10

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Jazin, Elena

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