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Low-dose oral midazolam reduces fear and distress during needle procedures in children with cancer
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. (Barnonkologisk forskning)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psychosocial oncology and supportive care.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. (Barnonkologisk forskning)
2009 (English)In: Pediatric Blood & Cancer, ISSN 1545-5009, E-ISSN 1545-5017, Vol. 53, no 7, 1200-1204 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND

Children with cancer often mention needle procedures as the most frightening, distressing, and sometimes painful aspect of the disease and treatment. The aim was to investigate whether children experience less fear, distress, and/or pain according to parents, nurses, and children >or=7 years of age when they receive oral midazolam versus placebo before a needle is inserted in a subcutaneously implanted intravenous port.

PROCEDURE

Fifty children 1-18 years of age who were being treated in a pediatric oncology and hematology setting were included consecutively when undergoing routine needle insertion into an intravenous port. All children were subjected to one needle insertion in this randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled study in which orally administered midazolam (n = 24) 0.3 mg/kg body weight (maximum 10 mg) was compared with placebo (n = 26). Parents, nurses, and children >or=7 years reported the patients' fear, distress, and pain on 0-100 mm Visual Analogue Scales.

RESULTS

Fear was lower in the midazolam group according to parents (P = 0.001), nurses (P = 0.001), and children (P = 0.015). Parents and nurses also reported lower distress (P = 0.020 and 0.007, respectively). Post hoc analyses indicated that the effects were more pronounced in younger children (<7 years of age).

CONCLUSION

Low-dose oral midazolam was effective in reducing fear and distress in pediatric oncology patients, especially in younger children, undergoing subcutaneous port needle insertion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 53, no 7, 1200-1204 p.
Keyword [en]
Cancer, child, oral midazolam, RCT
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-112942DOI: 10.1002/pbc.22233ISI: 000271363800006PubMedID: 19688837OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-112942DiVA: diva2:289080
Available from: 2010-01-22 Created: 2010-01-22 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Distressing Symptoms in Children with Cancer in General; During Needle Procedures in Particular
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distressing Symptoms in Children with Cancer in General; During Needle Procedures in Particular
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The main aims of this thesis were to investigate the effect of distraction, midazolam and morphine on fear, distress, and pain during needle procedures, and to longitudinally describe parents’ perceptions of their children’s symptom burden during and after cancer treatment.

The design in Study I-III was that of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted in a medical setting; Studies II-III were placebo controlled. Study IV has a longitudinal design, and data were collected at three times during treatment and three times after the end of successful treatment. Participants in Study I were children aged 1 to 7 (n=28), in Study II children aged 1 to 19 (n=50), in Study III children aged 1 to 19 (n=50), and in Study IV parents (n=160) of children aged 1 to 19.

Blowing soap bubbles or having a heated pillow reduces children’s fear and distress in connection with needle procedures. Low-dose oral midazolam 0.3mg/kg body weight is effective in reducing fear and distress, especially in younger children. Interestingly, oral morphine at a dose of 0.25mg/kg body weight does not reduce fear, distress or pain.

These studies have evaluated interventions that may be of help for the most frightened children during needle procedures. We suggest that the first-line intervention against procedural fear, distress, and/or pain should be standard care (i.e. EMLA) in addition to distraction interventions when needed, and only when this is insufficient to add pharmacological interventions.

According to parents, feeling drowsy, pain, and lack of energy are initially the most prevalent symptoms in their children, whereas less hair than usual is the most prevalent symptom during treatment. Pain, feeling sad, and nausea are initially the most distressing symptoms. Pain is both prevalent and distressing throughout treatment. The child’s symptom burden, as reported by parents, decreases over time. Information about distressing symptoms and when they can be expected may increase acceptance and adaptation in children and parents during and after cancer treatment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. 59 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 772
Keyword
Childhood cancer, pain, RCT, symptoms
National Category
Pediatrics
Research subject
Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-172905 (URN)978-91-554-8358-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-06-02, Rosénsalen, Ingång 95-96 NBV, Akademiska barnsjukhuset, Uppsala, 09:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-05-10 Created: 2012-04-17 Last updated: 2012-08-01Bibliographically approved

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Hedén, Lenavon Essen, LouiseFrykholm, Peter

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