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Enrichment of brain-related genes on the mammalian X chromosome is ancient and predates the divergence of synapsid and sauropsid lineages
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Animal Development and Genetics.
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2009 (English)In: Chromosome Research, ISSN 0967-3849, E-ISSN 1573-6849, Vol. 17, no 6, 811-820 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous studies have revealed an enrichment of reproduction- and brain-related genes on the human X chromosome. In the present study, we investigated the evolutionary history that underlies this functional specialization. To do so, we analyzed the orthologous building blocks of the mammalian X chromosome in the chicken genome. We used Affymetrix chicken genome microarrays to determine tissue-selective gene expression in several tissues of the chicken, including testis and brain. Subsequently, chromosomal distribution of genes with tissue-selective expression was determined. These analyzes provided several new findings. Firstly, they showed that chicken chromosomes orthologous to the mammalian X chromosome exhibited an increased concentration of genes expressed selectively in brain. More specifically, the highest concentration of brain-selectively expressed genes was found on chicken chromosome GGA12, which shows orthology to the X chromosomal regions with the highest enrichment of non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation (MRX) genes. Secondly, and in contrast to the first finding, no enrichment of testis-selective genes could be detected on these chicken chromosomes. These findings indicate that the accumulation of brain-related genes on the prospective mammalian X chromosome antedates the divergence of sauropsid and synapsid lineages 315 million years ago, whereas the accumulation of testis-related genes on the mammalian X chromosome is more recent and due to adaptational changes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 17, no 6, 811-820 p.
Keyword [en]
Chromosome evolution, Vertebrate sex chromosomes, Gene expression, Gene enrichment
National Category
Biological Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-112613DOI: 10.1007/s10577-009-9072-8ISI: 000270648100011PubMedID: 19731051OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-112613DiVA: diva2:292014
Available from: 2010-02-04 Created: 2010-01-16 Last updated: 2010-07-02Bibliographically approved

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Fundele, Reinald H
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