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Pharmacy Internship: Students’ Learning in a Professional Practice Setting
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy. (Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research)
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis was to explore Swedish pharmacist students’ learning during pharmacy internship. Internships are meant to introduce students to professional practice. Education programs have to reflect changes in the professional role, and take into account that learning in a professional practice setting differs from organized formal education. This thesis includes both quantitative and qualitative research approaches and applies workplace learning theories.

A scheme for measuring pharmacy students’ reflective ability was developed and shown to be feasible and reliable. Factors important for reflection were found to be primarily social and contextual, especially trained tutor and small pharmacy size. Notably, learning style or critical thinking did not correlate to students’ reflective ability. Tutors and students perceived that students used a wide variety of activities supporting learning of a broad repertoire of knowledge and skills, preparing them for coming professional working life. Tutors are most important to support learning. However, the current curriculum and formal activities do not address all these outcomes and learning activities used, e.g. workplace learning.

The first overall conclusion is that internship plays an essential part in the pharmacist education program. The integration of formal and informal learning activities during internship, including raising awareness of incidental learning, is important to support students in learning the professional practice of pharmacy. This integration could possibly be strengthened by introducing further tutor training, different assignments, and by using portfolios.

The second conclusion is that the community of practice is essential for students’ learning during internship, especially the student-tutor interaction. Hence, the entire social context has to be considered and it is important to ensure a good learning environment at pharmacies during internship.

In summary, this thesis contributes to the understanding of students’ learning during pharmacy internship and introduces educational research on the Swedish undergraduate pharmacy education programs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2010. , 95 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Pharmacy, ISSN 1651-6192 ; 120
Keyword [en]
pharmacy education, educational outcomes, pharmacy internship, advanced pharmacy practice experience, workplace education, tutoring, preceptoring, reflection, reflective practice, reflective journals, learning style, critical thinking
National Category
Social and Clinical Pharmacy
Research subject
Social Pharmacy
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-112771ISBN: 978-91-554-7725-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-112771DiVA: diva2:293235
Public defence
2010-03-26, B21, Biomedical Centre (BMC), Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-03-05 Created: 2010-01-20 Last updated: 2010-03-05Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A categorization scheme for assessing pharmacy students' levels of reflection during internships
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A categorization scheme for assessing pharmacy students' levels of reflection during internships
Show others...
2008 (English)In: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, ISSN 0002-9459, E-ISSN 1553-6467, Vol. 72, no 1, 05- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: To test the reliability, feasibility, and responsiveness of a categorization scheme for assessing pharmacy students' levels of reflection during internships. METHODS: Pharmacy interns at Uppsala University were asked to write a reflective essay about patient counseling at the start and end of their internships. A modified version of Kember's categorization scheme for assessing the level of reflection was used to evaluate these essays. RESULTS: Based on their essay scores, the students' levels of reflection increased during the internship course (p < 0.001) The mean time for categorization was 3 minutes per essay. The interrater reliability of the 182 essays was kappa = 0.63. CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation of the categorization scheme showed that it has good interrater reliability, feasibility, and responsiveness. This scheme might be useful in pharmacy practice educational settings, but needs further validation.

Keyword
Assessment, Pharmacy internship, Reflective journals, Reflective practice
National Category
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-86842 (URN)000253427000005 ()18322568 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-12-08 Created: 2008-12-08 Last updated: 2013-01-18Bibliographically approved
2. Factors associated with reflection among students after an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factors associated with reflection among students after an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in Sweden
2009 (English)In: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, ISSN 0002-9459, E-ISSN 1553-6467, Vol. 73, no 6, 107- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: To identify individual and social factors associated with pharmacy students' level of reflection in an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). METHODS: A postal questionnaire, including a reflective assignment, was sent to all pharmacy interns (n=262) at Uppsala University, Sweden, for 4 semesters in 2005-2007. RESULTS: In a univariate analysis, 7 factors were found to be associated with students' level of reflection. After controlling for covariates, 3 social factors were found to be independently associated with reflection: having a formal preceptor (OR=5.3), being at a small pharmacy (OR=19.8), and students' perception of the importance of discussing critical thinking with the preceptor (OR=1.2). No correlation could be observed between level of reflection and critical thinking, nor learning style. CONCLUSION: Social components seem to be of higher importance than individual components in students' reflective levels after pharmacy internship experience. Trained preceptors are important to foster reflection skills.

Keyword
Advanced pharmacy practice experience, internship, reflection, critical thinking, learning styles, assessment
National Category
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Research subject
Social Pharmacy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-112773 (URN)000270528200011 ()19885076 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-01-20 Created: 2010-01-20 Last updated: 2013-01-18Bibliographically approved
3. Learning for Professional Practice - Students’ and Tutors’ Perception of What Students Learn during Pharmacy Internship
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Learning for Professional Practice - Students’ and Tutors’ Perception of What Students Learn during Pharmacy Internship
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keyword
pharmacy internship; pharmacy practice experience; reflective practice, learning outcomes, semi-structured interviews, workplace learning
National Category
Social and Clinical Pharmacy
Research subject
Social Pharmacy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-112821 (URN)
Note
Submitted to paper.Available from: 2010-01-20 Created: 2010-01-20 Last updated: 2010-02-11
4. An Exploration of How Students Learn in a Pharmacy Internship
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Exploration of How Students Learn in a Pharmacy Internship
2011 (English)In: Pharmacy Education, ISSN 1560-2214, Vol. 11, no 1, 177-182 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background - The pharmacy internship introduces students to pharmacy practice. An understanding of learning processes in the internship is vital for educators in order to develop activities that support learning.

Aim - The aim was to analyse students‟ learning activities in a Swedish pharmacy internship from both students‟ and tutors‟ perspectives.

Method - Interviews with pharmacy internship students (n=17) and pharmacist tutors (n=18) were performed, followed by a qualitative analysis.

Results – The results showed that learning activities ranged from formal, organized activities to informal learning by participating in the professional community. There was a perceived lack of integration between formal and informal activities. Tutors and students acknowledged the influence of the context for learning and the importance of tutors for supporting learning.

Conclusion - Both formal and informal learning activities have to be accepted and made explicit. Integrating formal and informal learning activities, using the full continuum of possible learning activities, can enhance learning.

Keyword
pharmacy internship, pharmacy practice experience, reflective practice, workplace learning, learning activities, semi-structured interviews
National Category
Social and Clinical Pharmacy
Research subject
Social Pharmacy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-112820 (URN)
Available from: 2010-01-20 Created: 2010-01-20 Last updated: 2012-02-07Bibliographically approved

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