uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Optimization of computed tomography urography protocol, 1997 to 2008: effects on radiation dose
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Radiology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Radiology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Radiology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Radiology.
2009 (English)In: Acta Radiologica, ISSN 0284-1851, E-ISSN 1600-0455, Vol. 50, no 4, 446-454 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Since computed tomography (CT) urography began to replace excretory urography as the primary imaging technique in uroradiology, the collective radiation dose to the patients has increased. PURPOSE: To examine the changes in the CT urography protocol for investigating suspected urinary tract malignancy between the years 1997 and 2008, and how these changes have influenced the mean effective dose. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was based on 102 patients (mean age 66.1+/-14.8 years, range 31-89 years; 30 female, 72 male) divided into five groups (groups A-E) corresponding to the time points at which changes were made to the CT urography protocol. The mean effective doses were estimated using the ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator. RESULTS: The number of scan phases at CT urography was reduced from four to three in 1999, resulting in a reduction of the mean effective dose from 29.9/22.5 (female [F]/male [M]) mSv (group A) to 26.1/18.9 (F/M) mSv (group B). In 2001, mAs settings were adapted to patient size, and the mean effective dose was reduced to 16.8/12.0 (F/M) mSv (group C). In 2005, scans were performed with a multidetector-row CT equipped with automatic tube current modulation in the x- and y-axis (CARE Dose). The effective mAs was also lowered in the unenhanced and excretory phase, yet the mean effective dose increased to 18.2/13.1 (F/M) mSv (group D), since the effective mAs had to be increased in the corticomedullary phase to maintain image quality. In 2008, as tube current modulation in the x-, y-, and z-axis was introduced (CARE Dose4D), the mean effective dose was reduced to 11.7/8.8 (F/M) mSv (group E). CONCLUSION: This study shows that the individual mean effective dose to patients undergoing CT urography has decreased by 60%, from 29.9/22.5 (F/M) mSv in 1997 to 11.7/8.8 (F/M) mSv in 2008.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 50, no 4, 446-454 p.
Keyword [en]
CT, effective dose, optimization, radiation dose, urinary, urography
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-118808DOI: 10.1080/02841850902821757ISI: 000265273400015PubMedID: 19308762OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-118808DiVA: diva2:299514
Available from: 2010-02-23 Created: 2010-02-23 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. CT Urography: Efforts to Reduce the Radiation Dose
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CT Urography: Efforts to Reduce the Radiation Dose
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Computed tomography urography (CTU) is today the imaging method used to investigate patients with suspected urinary tract malignancy, replacing the old imaging method intravenous pyelography (IVP) about a decade ago. The downside of this shift was that the effective radiation dose to the examined patient was eight times higher for CTU compared to IVP. Based on four different studies, the present thesis focused on efforts to reduce the CTU radiation dose.

 

In study I, the number of cysts and solid lesions in the separate scan phases was evaluated in 57 patients undergoing four-phase CTU 1997-98. The number of scans was reduced from four to three when the nephrographic scan was abolished following study I.

Study II registered the diameter of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and the presenting symptoms in the total number of patients (n=232) diagnosed with RCC between 1997 and 2003. The results from study II showed that the critical size for RCCs to cause macroscopic hematuria was ≥ 4 cm. Study III was a dose-escalation study aimed to decide the minimal possible tube load in the unenhanced and excretory phase scans if the low dose images are reviewed together with normal dose corticomedullary phase images. Study III showed that it is possible to reduce the mean effective dose in three phase CTU from 16.2 mSv to 9.4 mSv with a combined low and normal dose CTU protocol. Study IV investigated the changes in the CTU protocol between 1997 and 2008, and the development of the effective radiation dose. Study IV clarified how the CTU protocol has changed between 1997 and 2008 and as a result the mean effective radiation dose to patients undergoing CTU in 2008 is only 39% of the effective dose in 1997.

 

In conclusion, the findings from the studies included in this thesis have contributed to a reduced radiation dose to patients undergoing CTU. The mean effective dose from CTU is at present only three times higher compared to that from the IVP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2011. 73 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 646
Keyword
Urinary tract malignancy, renal cell carcinoma, urography, x-ray computed tomography, radiation dosage, dose escalation, hematuria/diagnosis
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Research subject
Radiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-146332 (URN)978-91-554-8009-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-04-01, Enghoffsalen, Ing 50, Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala, 09:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-03-11 Created: 2011-02-16 Last updated: 2017-02-20Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMed

Authority records BETA

Dahlman, PärJangland, LarsMagnusson, Anders

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Dahlman, PärJangland, LarsMagnusson, Anders
By organisation
Radiology
In the same journal
Acta Radiologica
Medical and Health Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn
Total: 387 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf