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Magma-carbonate interaction processes and associated CO2 release at Merapi volcano, Indonesia: insights from experimental petrology
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Solid Earth Geology.
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2010 (English)In: Journal of Petrology, ISSN 0022-3530, E-ISSN 1460-2415, Vol. 51, no 5, 1027-1051 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is considerable evidence for continuing, late-stage interaction between the magmatic system at Merapi volcano, Indonesia, and local crustal carbonate (limestone). Calc-silicate xenoliths within Merapi basaltic-andesite eruptive rocks display textures indicative of intense interaction between magma and crustal carbonate, and Merapi feldspar phenocrysts frequently contain crustally contaminated cores and zones. To resolve the interaction processes between magma and limestone in detail we have performed a series of time-variable decarbonation experiments in silicate melt, at magmatic pressure and temperature, using a Merapi basaltic-andesite and local Javanese limestone as starting materials. We have used in situ analytical methods to determine the elemental and strontium isotope composition of the experimental products and to trace the textural, chemical, and isotopic evolution of carbonate assimilation. The major processes of magma-carbonate interaction identified are: (1) rapid decomposition and degassing of carbonate; (2) generation of a Ca-enriched, highly radiogenic strontium contaminant melt, distinct from the starting material composition; (3) intense CO2 vesiculation, particularly within the contaminated zones; (4) physical mingling between the contaminated and unaffected melt domains; (5) chemical mixing between melts. The experiments reproduce many of the features of magma-carbonate interaction observed in the natural Merapi xenoliths and feldspar phenocrysts. The Ca-rich, high 87Sr/86Sr contaminant melt produced in the experiments is considered as a precursor to the Ca-rich (often 'hyper-calcic') phases found in the xenoliths and the contaminated zones in Merapi feldspars.The xenoliths also exhibit micro-vesicular textures that can be linked to the CO2 liberation process seen in the experiments.This study, therefore, provides well-constrained petrological insights into the problem of crustal interaction at Merapi and points toward the substantial impact of such interaction on the volatile budget of the volcano.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 51, no 5, 1027-1051 p.
Keyword [en]
Carbon dioxide, Experimental petrology, Magma-carbonate interaction, Merapi, Strontium isotopes
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-119479DOI: 10.1093/petrology/egq010ISI: 000277995400003OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-119479DiVA: diva2:300310
Available from: 2010-02-25 Created: 2010-02-25 Last updated: 2017-12-12
In thesis
1. Processes of Magma-crust Interaction: Insights from Geochemistry and Experimental Petrology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Processes of Magma-crust Interaction: Insights from Geochemistry and Experimental Petrology
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This work focuses on crustal interaction in magmatic systems, drawing on experimental petrology and elemental and isotope geochemistry. Various magma-chamber processes such as magma-mixing, fractional crystallisation and magma-crust interaction are explored throughout the papers comprising the thesis. Emphasis is placed on gaining insights into the extent of crustal contamination in ocean island magmas from the Canary Islands and the processes of magma-crust interaction observed both in nature and in experiments. This research underscores that the compositions of ocean island magmas, even primitive types which are classically used as probes of the mantle, are susceptible to modification by crustal contamination. The principal mechanisms of contamination identified from work on both Tenerife and Gran Canaria (Canary Islands) are assimilation and partial melting of the pre-existing island edifice and intercalated sediments by newly arriving magma (i.e. “island recycling”). The information that we can gain from studying solidified magma and entrained crustal xenoliths concerning the rates and mechanisms of crustal assimilation is, however, limited. To address this shortcoming, a series of time-variable crustal carbonate assimilation experiments were carried out at magmatic pressure and temperature using natural materials from Merapi volcano, Indonesia. A temporally constrained reaction series of carbonate assimilation in magma has hence been constructed. The experiments were analysed using in-situ techniques to observe the progressive textural, elemental, and isotopic evolution of magma-carbonate interaction. Crucially, carbonate assimilation was found to liberate voluminous crustally-derived CO2 on a timescale of only seconds to minutes in the experiments. This points to the role of rapid crustal degassing in volcanic volatile budgets, and, pertinently, in magnifying hazardous volcanic behaviour. This thesis, therefore, delivers detailed insights into the processes of magma-crust interaction from experiments and geochemistry. The outcomes confirm that crustal processes are significant factors in both, i) ocean island magma genesis, and ii) magma differentiation towards compositions with greater explosive potential which can, in turn, manifest as hazardous volcanism.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2010. 46 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 777
Keyword
Canary Island magmatism, HP-HT experimental petrology, magma-crust interaction, Merapi volcano, radiogenic isotopes (Sr, Nd, Pb), stable isotopes (O, B).
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-132702 (URN)978-91-554-7924-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-12-03, Hambergsalen, Geocentrum, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 10:15 (English)
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Note

Felaktigt tryckt som Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology 707

Available from: 2010-11-12 Created: 2010-10-25 Last updated: 2013-01-09Bibliographically approved

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