A train of kink folds in the surficial salt of Qom Kuh, Central Iran
2009 (English)In: Journal of Structural Geology, ISSN 0191-8141, Vol. 31, no 10, 1212-1222 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The many subaerial extrusions of salt current in Iran are smaller and faster versions of steady state extrusions of metamorphic rocks from crustal channels in mountain chains. The extruded salt develops a variety of internal folds as the salt accumulates ductile displacements that can reach metres a year. Weather-induced elastic strains de-stress the outer layers of salt extrusions to a brittle carapace of broken dilated salt. Qom Kuh, situated in Central Iran, is a comparatively small and slow example of a viscous salt fountain and, as a result, its brittle elastic carapace may be thicker than most This may account for Qom Kuh being the only salt fountain known to have a train of 10 m scale kink folds in its surficial salt. We attribute these folds to lateral shortening and back-shear of a surface-parallel planar mechanical anisotropy in the surficial salt induced by gravitationally driven ductile flow of the underlying salt. When it is dry, the elastic carapace is relatively strong and acts as a stiff corset impeding gravity spreading of the underlying confined salt. However, the carapace weakens and kinks on wetting, allowing the underlying salt to gravity spread. These folds illustrate how the weather can affect gravity spreading of surficial salt masses and how complex the interplay of tectonic and climatic signals can be in "steady state" mountains.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 31, no 10, 1212-1222 p.
Salt extrusion, Iran, Dilated carapace, Mechanical anisotropy, Kink folds, Chevron folds
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-120462DOI: 10.1016/j.jsg.2009.06.014ISI: 000272413900014OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-120462DiVA: diva2:303392