uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
A Nanocellulose Polypyrrole Composite Based on Microfibrillated Cellulose from Wood
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
Show others and affiliations
2010 (English)In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 114, no 12, 4178-4182 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is demonstrated that it is possible to coat the individual fibers of wood-based nanocellulose with polypyrrole using in situ chemical polymerization to obtain an electrically conducting continuous high-surface-area composite. The experimental results indicate that the high surface area of the water dispersed material, to a large extent, is maintained upon normal drying without the use of any solvent exchange. Thus, the employed chemical polymerization of polypyrrole on the microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) nanofibers in the hydrogel gives rise to a composite, the structure of which—unlike that of uncoated MFC paper—does not collapse upon drying. The dry composite has a surface area of 90 m2/g and a conductivity of 1.5 S/cm, is electrochemically active, and exhibits an ion-exchange capacity for chloride ions of 289 C/g corresponding to a specific capacity of 80 mAh/g. The straightforwardness of the fabrication of the present nanocellulose composites should significantly facilitate industrial manufacturing of highly porous, electroactive conductive paper materials for applications including ion-exchange and paper-based energy storage devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society , 2010. Vol. 114, no 12, 4178-4182 p.
National Category
Chemical Sciences Inorganic Chemistry Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Chemistry with specialization in Inorganic Chemistry; Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-121745DOI: 10.1021/jp911272mISI: 000275855800010PubMedID: 20205378OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-121745DiVA: diva2:306436
Available from: 2010-03-29 Created: 2010-03-29 Last updated: 2016-04-18
In thesis
1. Nanocellulose and Polypyrrole Composites for Electrical Energy Storage
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nanocellulose and Polypyrrole Composites for Electrical Energy Storage
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

To meet the predicted increase in demand for energy storage in tomorrow's society, the development of inexpensive, flexible, lightweight and sustainable energy-storage materials is essential. In this respect, devices based on electroactive organic molecules, such as conducting polymers, are highly interesting. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the use of nanocellulose as a matrix material in composites of cellulose and the electroactive polymer polypyrrole (PPy), and the use of these composites in all-polymer paper-based energy-storage devices.  

Pyrrole was polymerized using FeCl3 onto cellulose nanofibers in the form of a hydrogel. The resulting PPy-coated fibers were washed with water and dried into a high surface area, conductive paper material. Variations in the drying technique provided a way of controlling the porosity and the surface area of wood-based cellulose nanofibers, as the properties of the cellulose were found to have a large influence on the composite structure. Different nanocellulose fibers, of algal and wood origin, were evaluated as the reinforcing phase in the conductive composites. These materials had conductivities of 1–6 S/cm and specific surface areas of up to 246 m2/g at PPy weight fractions around 67%.  

Symmetrical supercapacitor devices with algae-based nanocellulose-PPy electrodes and an aqueous electrolyte showed specific charge capacities of around 15 mAh/g and specific capacitances of around 35 F/g, normalized with respect to the dry electrode weight. Potentiostatic charging of the devices was suggested as a way to make use of the rapid oxidation and reduction processes in these materials, thus minimizing the charging time and the effect of the IR drop in the device, and ensuring charging to the right potential. Repeated charging and discharging of the devices revealed a 10–20% loss in capacity over 10 000 cycles. Upon up-scaling of the devices, it was found that an improved cell design giving a lower cell resistance was needed in order to maintain high charge and discharge rates.  

The main advantages of the presented concept of nanocellulose-PPy-based electrical energy storage include the eco-friendly raw materials, an up-scalable and potentially cost-effective production process, safe operation, and the controllable porosity and moldability offered by the nanocellulose fiber matrix. Integrating energy storage devices into paper could lead to un- precedented opportunities for new types of consumer electronics. Future research efforts should be directed at increasing the energy density and improving the stability of this type of device as well as advancing the fundamental understanding of the current limitations of these properties.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. 71 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 898
conducting polymer, polypyrrole, cellulose, nanocellulose, porosity, composite, energy storage, battery, supercapacitor
National Category
Physical Sciences
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Materials Science
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-168664 (URN)978-91-554-8276-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-03-30, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:30 (English)
Available from: 2012-03-09 Created: 2012-02-14 Last updated: 2012-03-29Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMed

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Nyström, GustavMihranyan, AlbertRazaq, AamirNyholm, LeifStrømme, Maria
By organisation
Nanotechnology and Functional MaterialsInorganic Chemistry
In the same journal
Journal of Physical Chemistry B
Chemical SciencesInorganic ChemistryEngineering and Technology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 671 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link