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Bone response to free form fabricated hydroxyapatite and zirconia scaffolds: a transmission electron microscopy study in the human maxilla
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences. (Materials in Medicine)
Institute for Clinical Sciences, Dept of Biomaterials, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Göteborg.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
Institute for Clinical Sciences, Dept of Biomaterials, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Göteborg.
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2012 (English)In: Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, ISSN 1523-0899, E-ISSN 1708-8208, Vol. 14, no 3, 461-469 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Understanding the interfacial reactions to synthetic bone regenerative scaffolds in vivo is fundamental for improving osseointegration and osteogenesis. Using transmission electron microscopy, it is possible to study the biological response of hydroxyapatite (HA) and zirconia (ZrO2) scaffolds at the nanometer scale.

Purpose: In this study, the bone-bonding abilities of HA and ZrO2 scaffolds produced by free-form fabrication were evaluated in the human maxilla at 3 months and 7 months.

Materials and Methods: HA and ZrO2 scaffolds (ø: 3 mm) were implanted in the human maxilla, removed with surrounding bone, embedded in resin, and sectioned. A novel focused ion beam (FIB) sample preparation technique enabled the production of thin lamellae for study by scanning transmission electron microscopy.

Results: Interface regions were investigated using high-angle annular dark-field imaging and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Interfacial apatite layers of 80 nm and 50 nm thickness were noted in the 3- and 7-month HA samples, respectively, and bone growth was discovered in micropores up to 10 µm into the samples.

Conclusions: The absence of an interfacial layer in the ZrO2 samples suggest the formation of a direct contact with bone, while HA, which bonds through an apatite layer, shows indications of resorption with increasing implantation time. This study demonstrates the potential of HA and ZrO2 scaffolds for use as bone regenerative materials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 14, no 3, 461-469 p.
Keyword [en]
FIB, free-form fabrication, hydroxyapatite, scaffolds, TEM, zirconia
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology; Engineering Science with specialization in Materials Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-122088DOI: 10.1111/j.1708-8208.2009.00270.xISI: 000304759300019OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-122088DiVA: diva2:308410
Available from: 2010-04-06 Created: 2010-04-06 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Nanoscale Osseointegration: Characterization of Biomaterials and their Interfaces with Electron Tomography
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nanoscale Osseointegration: Characterization of Biomaterials and their Interfaces with Electron Tomography
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Bone response is one of the key determining factors in the overall success of biomaterials intended for bone regeneration and osseointegration. Understanding the formation of bone at an implant surface may lead to the improved design of biomaterials for the future. However, due to the inhomogeneity of bone tissue at an interface, two-dimensional images often lack detail on the interfacial complexity. Furthermore, the increasing use of nanotechnology in the design and production of biomaterials demands characterization techniques on a similar nano length scale.

While current analysis methods, such as X-ray tomography, transmission electron microscopy, focused ion beam microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, provide a basis for analysing biomaterials and biointerfaces, they are incapable of doing so with both nanometre resolution and three-dimensional clarity. In contrast, electron tomography may be used to characterize the three-dimensional structure of biomaterials and their interfaces to bone with nanometre resolution.

In this work, hydroxyapatite scaffolds, and laser-modified titanium and Ti6Al4V implants were studied in contact with human or rabbit bone. Z-contrast electron tomography revealed that the orientation of collagen in bone apposing hydroxyapatite, titanium and Ti6Al4V implants is consistently parallel to the implant surface, where the bioactive layer that precipitates on HA is oriented perpendicular to the implant surface. With this method, complete three-dimensional nanoscale osseointegration of titanium-based implants was also established.

The extension of this technique from interfacial analyses to the design of biomaterials provided an understanding of the pore structure of mesoporous titania. In further investigations, the open three-dimensional pore network, as revealed by electron tomography, showed promise as a coating that improves implant osseointegration and enables site-specific drug-delivery from an implant surface.

In summary, it was demonstrated that two-dimensional characterization techniques were insufficient for the investigation of nanostructured biomaterials, as well as their interfaces to bone. Visualizing biointerfaces and biomaterials with nanometre precision in three-dimensions can expose new fundamental information on materials properties and bone response, enabling better design of biomaterials for the future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. 61 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 962
Keyword
Electron tomography, transmission electron microscopy, hydroxyapatite, titanium, titania, bone, implant, osseointegration, interface, mesoporous
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Materials Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-179445 (URN)978-91-554-8441-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-10-05, Polhemsalen, Ångström Laboratory, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 10:15 (English)
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Available from: 2012-09-14 Created: 2012-08-15 Last updated: 2013-01-22Bibliographically approved

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Grandfield, KathrynEricsson, FredricEngqvist, Håkan

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