uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
ADHD after fetal exposure to maternal smoking
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. (Allmänpediatrisk forskning/Nordvall)
2010 (English)In: Nicotine & tobacco research, ISSN 1462-2203, E-ISSN 1469-994X, Vol. 12, no 4, 408-415 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

INTRODUCTION: Smoking during pregnancy has been reported to be associated with a twofold to fourfold increased risk of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the offspring. Genetic and socioeconomic confounders may contribute to this association. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between fetal exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and ADHD, taking such potential confounders into consideration. METHODS: A register study in a population of 982,856 children, 6-19 years of age, born at term, and residents in Sweden in 2006 was conducted. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) of maternal smoking habits during pregnancy on ADHD medication in the 927,007 study subjects where maternal smoking habits were available from the Medical Birth Register in the presence of socioeconomic and parental psychiatric morbidity confounders. To adjust the analysis also for genetic confounding, we used a within-mother between-pregnancy approach in offspring of 26,292 mothers with inconsistent smoking habits (smoking/non-smoking) between pregnancies. RESULTS: The OR for ADHD medication in offspring of mothers who smoked >or=10 cigarettes/day was 2.86 (2.66-3.07) in the entire study population after adjustment for sex and age, while this same exposure yielded an OR of only 1.26 (0.95-1.58) when two pregnancies of the same mother were analyzed in a within-subjects design. DISCUSSION: Smoking during pregnancy has a strong association with ADHD in the offspring in the general Swedish population, but this risk is primarily explained by genetic and socioeconomic confounding.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 12, no 4, 408-415 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-122349DOI: 10.1093/ntr/ntq017ISI: 000276304800011PubMedID: 20176681OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-122349DiVA: diva2:309794
Available from: 2010-04-08 Created: 2010-04-08 Last updated: 2016-05-02

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMed

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Lindblad, Frank
By organisation
Child and Adolescent PsychiatryDepartment of Women's and Children's Health
In the same journal
Nicotine & tobacco research
Medical and Health Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 196 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link