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Effects of a pyrthroid pesticide on endocrine reponses to female odour and reproductive behaviour in male parr of brown trout (Salmo trutta)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
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2007 (English)In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 81, no 1, 1-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reproductive behaviour of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) from an anadromous stock was studied in a large stream water aquarium. Four adult males and two ovulated females were placed in the aquarium together with eight mature male parr. Four of the parr were exposed during the previous 4 days to two concentrations (0.1 or 1.0 μg l−1) of the pyrethroid pesticide cypermethrin (a disrupter of olfactory receptor function) and four of the parr to the solvent ethanol. The behaviour of all fish was followed for 24 h and then blood and milt was collected. Exposure to the higher concentration of cypermethrin disturbed the reproductive behaviour of the parr. They displayed fewer courting events, spent less time near the nesting females and had lower volumes of strippable milt. They also had significantly lower amounts of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) in the blood plasma than the control group. The higher cypermethrin group also had significantly lower levels of all these variables than the lower cypermethrin group, apart from strippable milt that showed no significant differences between two groups. No significant differences in non-reproductive behaviours were observed between any of the groups. In the control fish, there were significant positive correlations between (a) the number of courting events and the amount of time spent near the female, (b) blood plasma levels of 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20β-P) and time spent near the female and (c) plasma levels of 17,20β-P and the number of courting events. Further, in control fish, higher plasma levels of 17,20β-P were observed in parr interacting with a female compared to those with no female contacts. A priming experiment confirmed a previous study that cypermethrin damages olfactory reception. Parr exposed to cypermethrin had significantly lower blood plasma levels of 17,20β-P and 11-KT than control males after exposure to ovarian fluid and urine (known to contain reproductive priming pheromones). When ethanol-exposed males were exposed to ovarian fluid and urine they had significantly higher plasma levels of 17,20β-P compared to those exposed to water only.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier , 2007. Vol. 81, no 1, 1-9 p.
Keyword [en]
Cypermethrin, steroid, sex hormone, courting, spawning, Pheromones
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Toxicology; Biology with specialization in Animal Ecology
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-122368DOI: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2006.10.011ISI: 000244173200001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-122368DiVA: diva2:309898
Paper I
Available from: 2010-04-09 Created: 2010-04-09 Last updated: 2011-02-09Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Pheromonal Mediated Behaviour and Endocrine Responses in Salmonids: The impact of Cypermethrin, Copper, and Glyphosate
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pheromonal Mediated Behaviour and Endocrine Responses in Salmonids: The impact of Cypermethrin, Copper, and Glyphosate
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The effects of cypermethrin, copper and glyphosate on the endocrine system and subsequent response to female pheromones were investigated in mature male brown trout (Salmo trutta) parr.  Responses measured were the amount of strippable milt, blood plasma levels of both an androgen (11-ketotestosterone (11-KT)) and a progestin (17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20b-P)), and behavioural changes. This was done in a two phased investigation where parr were exposed to one of the following via ambient water: 1) 0.1 or 1.0 μg L-1 cypermethrin, 2) 10 or 100 μg L-1 copper (Cu2+), or 3) 150 μg L-1 glyphosate for a 96 hour period.  Phase one was a priming experiment exposing parr to a treatment followed by priming with PGF or ovarian fluid (OVF). Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr were, also exposed to glyphosate during phase I. The second phase was centered on behavioural observations.  Exposed parr were placed in a 35,000 L stream aquarium together with two ovulated females and four anadromous males. After the experiments a blood sample was taken, milt volumes measured and testes weighed.  The plasma was analyzed for 11-KT and 17,20b-P concentrations using radioimmunoassay (RIA).

Results from phase I-priming: 1.0 μg L-1 cypermethrin exposure lowered 17,20b-P and 11-KT; Copper exposure lowered milt volumes; glyphosate exposure lowered 11-KT in salmon and raised 17,20b-P in trout.  Results from phase II-behaviour: 1.0 μg L-1 cypermethrin exposure lowered 11-KT, milt and spawning behaviour; copper exposure lowered spawning behaviour and raised 11-KT; Glyphosate exposure lowered 11KT; continuous cypermethrin exposure raised 17,20b-P, 11-KT and gave a tendency towards increased aggression. It is concluded that low concentration exposure to the compounds examined can induce negative effects on male salmonid endocrine systems, either through a disruption in the olfactory system or through a direct effect.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2010. 52 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 730
Cypermethrin, copper, glyphosate, behaviour, hormones, pheromones, olfaction, 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17, 20β-P), reproduction
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Environmental Toxicology
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-121848 (URN)978-91-554-7772-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-05-07, Lindahlsalen, Evolutionsbiologiskt centrum, Norbyvägen 18A, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Extern doktorand från Södertörns högskolaAvailable from: 2010-04-16 Created: 2010-03-31 Last updated: 2011-01-13Bibliographically approved

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