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Options for improving the load matching capability of distributed photovoltaics: Methodology and application to high-latitude data
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. (Built Environment Energy Systems Group (BEESG))
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
HUT, Helsinki.
2009 (English)In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 83, no 11, 1953-1966 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

At high latitudes, domestic electricity demand and insolation are   negatively correlated on both an annual and a diurnal basis. With   increasing integration of distributed photovoltaics (PV) in low-voltage   distribution grids of residential areas, limits to the penetration   level are set by voltage rise due to unmatched production and load. In   this paper a methodology for determining the impacts of three options   for increased load matching is presented and applied to high-latitude   data. The studied options are PV array orientation, demand side   management (DSM) and electricity storage. Detailed models for domestic   electricity demand and PV output are used. An optimisation approach is   applied to find an optimal distribution of PV systems on different   array orientations and a best-case evaluation of DSM and a storage   model are implemented. At high penetration levels, storage is the most   efficient option for maximising the solar fraction, but at lower   overproduction levels, the impact of DSM is equal or slightly better.   An east-west orientation of PV arrays is suggested for high penetration   levels, but the effect of the optimised orientation is small. Without   an optimised storage operation, the overproduced power is more   efficiently reduced by DSM than storage, although this is highly   dependent on the applied DSM algorithm. Further research should be   focused on the DSM potential and optimal operation of storage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 83, no 11, 1953-1966 p.
Keyword [en]
Photovoltaics, Distributed generation, Load matching, Demand side management
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Solid State Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-122403DOI: 10.1016/j.solener.2009.07.007ISI: 000271158600003OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-122403DiVA: diva2:310018
Note

Correction in:Solar Energy, 2011, vol. 85, issue.1, p. 215, doi:10.1016/j.solener.2010.11.016

Available from: 2010-04-12 Created: 2010-04-12 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. System Studies and Simulations of Distributed Photovoltaics in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>System Studies and Simulations of Distributed Photovoltaics in Sweden
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) capacity is increasing worldwide, mainly due to extensive subsidy schemes for renewable electricity generation. A majority of newly installed systems are distributed small-scale systems located in distribution grids, often at residential customers. Recent developments suggest that such distributed PV generation (PV-DG) could gain more interest in Sweden in the near future. With prospects of decreasing system prices, an extensive integration does not seem impossible.

In this PhD thesis the opportunities for utilisation of on-site PV generation and the consequences of a widespread introduction are studied. The specific aims are to improve modelling of residential electricity demand to provide a basis for simulations, to study load matching and grid interaction of on-site PV and to add to the understanding of power system impacts.

Time-use data (TUD) provided a realistic basis for residential load modelling. Both a deterministic and a stochastic approach for generating different types of end-use profiles were developed. The models are capable of realistically reproducing important electric load properties such as diurnal and seasonal variations, short time-scale fluctuations and random load coincidence.

The load matching capability of residential on-site PV was found to be low by default but possible to improve to some extent by different measures. Net metering reduces the economic effects of the mismatch and has a decisive impact on the production value and on the system sizes that are reasonable to install for a small-scale producer.

Impacts of large-scale PV-DG on low-voltage (LV) grids and on the national power system were studied. Power flow studies showed that voltage rise in LV grids is not a limiting factor for integration of PV-DG. Variability and correlations with large-scale wind power were determined using a scenario for large-scale building-mounted PV. Profound impacts on the power system were found only for the most extreme scenarios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2010. 110 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 781
Keyword
Photovoltaics, Solar energy, Distributed generation, Load modelling, Time-use data, Markov chain, Power flow, Power system
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Research subject
Engineering Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-132907 (URN)978-91-554-7931-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-12-10, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
Felaktigt tryckt som Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology 711Available from: 2010-11-18 Created: 2010-10-28 Last updated: 2011-03-21Bibliographically approved

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Widén, JoakimWäckelgård, Ewa

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