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Adipose tissue fatty acids and insulin sensitivity in elderly men.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Center for Clinical Research Dalarna.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
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2010 (English)In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 53, no 5, 850-857 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS

Dietary fatty acids may affect insulin sensitivity. Adipose tissue fatty acid composition partly reflects long-term dietary intake, but data from large studies regarding relationships with insulin sensitivity are lacking. We aimed to determine the association between adipose tissue fatty acids and insulin sensitivity in elderly Swedish men.

METHODS

In a cross-sectional analysis of the community-based Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (n = 795, mean age 71 years), adipose tissue biopsies were obtained and fatty acid composition was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Insulin sensitivity was measured directly by a euglycaemic clamp.

RESULTS

Palmitic acid (16:0), the major saturated fatty acid (SFA) in the diet and in adipose tissue, was negatively correlated with insulin sensitivity (r = -0.14), as were 16:1 n-7 (r = -0.15), 20:3 n-6 (r = -0.31), 20:4 n-6 (r = -0.38), 22:4 n-6 (r = -0.37) and 22:5 n-3 (r = -0.24; p < 0.001 for all). Some minor SFAs were positively correlated; 12:0 (r = 0.46), 14:0 (r = 0.32), 17:0 (r = 0.21) and 18:0 (r = 0.41; p < 0.001 for all), as were essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) 18:2 n-6 (r = 0.10, p < 0.01) and 18:3 n-3 (r = 0.16, p < 0.001). Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) was negatively correlated (r = -0.11, p < 0.01), whereas eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) was not (r = -0.02, NS). Most associations diminished or disappeared in lean individuals, indicating an effect of obesity.

CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION

Adipose tissue enriched with palmitic acid and depleted of essential PUFAs is associated with insulin resistance. The positive association between minor SFAs and insulin sensitivity merits further investigation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 53, no 5, 850-857 p.
Keyword [en]
Adipose tissue, Dietary fatty acids, Fatty acid composition, Insulin resistance, Insulin sensitivity
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-122778DOI: 10.1007/s00125-010-1669-0ISI: 000276424300007PubMedID: 20127308OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-122778DiVA: diva2:311004
Available from: 2010-04-19 Created: 2010-04-19 Last updated: 2015-06-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Dietary Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Risk: Influence on Lipoproteins, Insulin Resistance and Liver Fat
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dietary Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Risk: Influence on Lipoproteins, Insulin Resistance and Liver Fat
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis was to investigate how dietary fatty acids affect the risk for cardiometabolic disease, i.e. cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes and obesity. The overall hypothesis was that unsaturated fatty acids and especially the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) linoleic acid (LA), 18:2n-6, would decrease cardiometabolic risk compared with saturated fatty acids (SFAs), in line with current recommendations to partly replace dietary SFA with PUFA.

Papers I and V were observational studies based on the community-based cohort Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM). Adipose tissue fatty acid composition was determined as biomarker for dietary fat intake. Studies II, III and IV were randomised short-term interventions on human volunteers, in which different dietary fats were provided to the participants.

In 71-year-old men, adipose tissue LA and α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) were associated with insulin sensitivity (euglycaemic clamp), although this association was diminished for LA after adjusting for lifestyle variables. Different SFA displayed divergent associations; only palmitic acid (16:0) was inversely associated with insulin sensitivity (Paper I). In Cox regression analyses, LA was modestly associated with decreased all-cause mortality, but not CVD mortality during 15 years follow-up (Paper V).

In a 3+3-week cross-over study on 20 weight-stable volunteers with dyslipidaemia, all foods were provided. A rapeseed oil-based diet distinctly lowered low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides compared with a dairy-fat based diet (butter, cream and fatty cheese). Insulin sensitivity or coagulation factors were not affected (Paper II).

In a 10-week randomised trial on 67 abdominally obese participants, PUFA (mostly sunflower oil) decreased liver fat compared with SFA (mostly butter) under isocaloric conditions. In individuals considered highly compliant to study diets, lipoproteins were also decreased during the PUFA diet (Paper III).

In a 7-week double-blind randomised trial on 41 healthy volunteers, PUFA (sunflower oil) decreased the total:HDL cholesterol ratio compared with SFA (palm oil) during moderate weight gain (1.5 kg) (Paper IV).

In conclusion, LA (PUFA) intake is associated with decreased cardiometabolic risk compared with higher SFA intake, overall supporting a beneficial role of non-tropical vegetable oils in place of solid fats in preventing fatty liver and cardiometabolic disorders.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. 74 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1111
Keyword
Linoleic acid, Palmitic acid, PUFA, SFA, n-6 fatty acids
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medical Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-252066 (URN)978-91-554-9264-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-08-21, Auditorium Minus, Museum Gustavianum, Akademigatan 3, Uppsala, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-05-29 Created: 2015-04-28 Last updated: 2015-07-07Bibliographically approved

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