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Is smoking and alcohol consumption associated with long-term sick leave due to unspecific back or neck pain among employees in the public sector? Results of a three-year follow-up cohort study
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. (Eva Vingård)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. (Eva Vingård)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. (Eva Vingård)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. (Eva Vingård)
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2009 (English)In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 41, no 7, p. 550-556Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between smoking and alcohol consumption, and long-term sick leave due to unspecific back or neck pain among employees in the public sector. DESIGN: A 3-year prospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: Approximately 9000 persons in the public sector in Sweden were invited to participate. Of these, 7533 answered a questionnaire and 6532 were included in the study, classified as having "good health for working". METHODS: New periods of sick leave >or= 28 days were consecutively reported from the employers or the occupational health service during a period of 3 years. Rate ratios were estimated by means of Cox proportional hazard regression model. RESULTS: Smoking was associated with an increased risk of long-term sick leave due to unspecific back or neck pain. Compared with people who have never smoked, "ever smokers" had a higher risk (rate ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-2.4). Alcohol consumption tended to be associated with a decreased risk, but the results were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that smoking is a risk factor for long-term sick leave due to unspecific back or neck pain. Moderate alcohol consumption tends to have a protective effect, at least among women in the public sector.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 41, no 7, p. 550-556
Keyword [en]
sick leave, back pain, neck pain, lifestyle, public sector
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-122872DOI: 10.2340/16501977-0370ISI: 000267421100008PubMedID: 19543666OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-122872DiVA, id: diva2:311259
Available from: 2010-04-20 Created: 2010-04-20 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved

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