Is smoking and alcohol consumption associated with long-term sick leave due to unspecific back or neck pain among employees in the public sector? Results of a three-year follow-up cohort study
2009 (English)In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, Vol. 41, no 7, 550-556 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between smoking and alcohol consumption, and long-term sick leave due to unspecific back or neck pain among employees in the public sector. DESIGN: A 3-year prospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: Approximately 9000 persons in the public sector in Sweden were invited to participate. Of these, 7533 answered a questionnaire and 6532 were included in the study, classified as having "good health for working". METHODS: New periods of sick leave >or= 28 days were consecutively reported from the employers or the occupational health service during a period of 3 years. Rate ratios were estimated by means of Cox proportional hazard regression model. RESULTS: Smoking was associated with an increased risk of long-term sick leave due to unspecific back or neck pain. Compared with people who have never smoked, "ever smokers" had a higher risk (rate ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-2.4). Alcohol consumption tended to be associated with a decreased risk, but the results were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that smoking is a risk factor for long-term sick leave due to unspecific back or neck pain. Moderate alcohol consumption tends to have a protective effect, at least among women in the public sector.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 41, no 7, 550-556 p.
sick leave, back pain, neck pain, lifestyle, public sector
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-122872DOI: 10.2340/16501977-0370ISI: 000267421100008PubMedID: 19543666OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-122872DiVA: diva2:311259