Lack of both lethality and defective in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem cells N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase 1 and 2 causes early embryonic
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
NDSTs (N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferases) are enzymes responsible for N-sulfation during heparan sulfate and heparin biosynthesis. While lack of NDST2 results in defective mast cells and NDST1 deficiency causes neonatal death and lung, skeletal and brain defects, lack of both isoforms is not compatible with embryonic development. We here show that NDST1/2-/- embryos die before E6.5 and that embryos dissected out at E5.5 lack parts of the embryo/extraembryonic tissue. Consistent with their in vivo behavior, in vitro cultured NDST1/2 deficient embryos displayed impaired ability of inner cell mass proliferation. In addition, markers for all the three germ layers had a disturbed expression pattern in isolated NDST1/2 deficient embryonic stem (ES) cells. Characterization of heparan sulfate (HS) structure in control ES cells and in ES cells lacking NDST1, NDST2 or both NDST1 and NDST2 revealed big differences. As expected, control cells synthesized HS with the highest degree of sulfation closely followed by HS from NDST2-/- cells, which in turn was more sulfated than HS produced by NDST1-/- cells. HS from NDST1/2-/- cells was almost devoid of sulfate groups. Notably, lack of one NDST isoform did not result in increased expression of any of the others. While all cell types except the NDST1/2-/- cells produced HS with a higher degree of sulfation when allowed to differentiate for 8 days, HS from control cells was still more heavily sulfated than that produced by NDST2-/- cells followed by the HS of NDST1-/- cells. The increase in sulfation was paralleled by increased expression of NDST transcripts and could also be recorded as increased N-sulfotransferase activity of cell lysates. While NDST1/2 deficient ES cells were unable to differentiate into beating cardiomyocytes all NDST1-/- and control embryoid bodies had started to beat after 4 days of culture. Surprisingly, NDST2 deficiency resulted in delayed cardiomyocyte differentiation.
Embryonic stem cells, biochemistry, NDST1, NDST2
Cell and Molecular Biology Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
Research subject Biochemistry
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-123464OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-123464DiVA: diva2:314320