Structure-activity relationship analysis of cytotoxic cyanoguanidines: selection of CHS 828 as candidate drug
2009 (English)In: BMC research notes, ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 2, 114- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
BACKGROUND: N-(6-(4-chlorophenoxy)hexyl)-N'-cyano-N''-4-pyridyl guanidine) (CHS 828) is the first candidate drug from a novel group of anti-tumour agents - the pyridyl cyanoguanidines, shown to be potent compounds interfering with cellular metabolism (inhibition of nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase) and NF-kappaB signalling. Substituted cyanoguanidines are also found in anti-hypertensive agents such as the potassium channel opener pinacidil (N-cyano-N'-(4-pyridyl)-N''-(1,2,2-trimethylpropyl)guanidine) and histamine-II receptor antagonists (e.g. cimetidine, N-cyano-N'-methyl-N''-[2-[[(5-methylimidazol-4-yl]methyl]thio]ethyl)guanidine). In animal studies, CHS 828 has shown very promising activity, and phase I and II studies resulted in further development of a with a water soluble prodrug. FINDINGS: To study the structural requirements for cyanoguanidine cytotoxicity a set of 19 analogues were synthesized. The cytotoxic effects were then studied in ten cell lines selected for different origins and mechanisms of resistance, using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA). The compounds showed varying cytotoxic activity even though the dose-response curves for some analogues were very shallow. Pinacidil and cimetidine were found to be non-toxic in all ten cell lines. Starting with cyanoguanidine as the crucial core it was shown that 4-pyridyl substitution was more efficient than was 3-pyridyl substitution. The 4-pyridyl cyanoguanidine moiety should be linked by an alkyl chain, optimally a hexyl, heptyl or octyl chain, to a bulky end group. The exact composition of this end group did not seem to be of crucial importance; when the end group was a mono-substituted phenyl ring it was shown that the preferred position was 4-substitution, followed by 3- and, finally, 2-substitution as the least active. Whether the substituent was a chloro, nitro or methoxy substituent seemed to be of minor importance. Finally, the activity patterns in the ten cell lines were compared. Substances with similar structures correlated well, whilst substances with large differences in molecular structure demonstrated lower correlation coefficients. CONCLUSION: According to this structure-activity relationship (SAR) study, CHS 828 meets the requirements for optimal cytotoxic activity for this class of compounds.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 2, 114- p.
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-125034DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-2-114PubMedID: 19563661OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-125034DiVA: diva2:318322