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Report of AAPM Therapy Physics Committee Task Group 74: In-air output ratio, Sc, for megavoltage photon beams
University of Pennsylvania.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Avdelningen för sjukhusfysik.
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2009 (English)In: Medical physics (Lancaster), ISSN 0094-2405, Vol. 36, no 11, 5261-5291 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The concept of in-air output ratio (Sc) was introduced to characterize how the incident photon fluence per monitor unit (or unit time for a Co-60 unit) varies with collimator settings. However, there has been much confusion regarding the measurement technique to be used that has prevented the accurate and consistent determination of Sc. The main thrust of the report is to devise a theoretical and measurement formalism that ensures interinstitutional consistency of Sc. The in-air output ratio, Sc, is defined as the ratio of primary collision water kerma in free-space, Kp, per monitor unit between an arbitrary collimator setting and the reference collimator setting at the same location. Miniphantoms with sufficient lateral and longitudinal thicknesses to eliminate electron contamination and maintain transient electron equilibrium are recommended for the measurement of Sc. The authors present a correction formalism to extrapolate the correct Sc from the measured values using high-Z miniphantom. Miniphantoms made of high-Z material are used to measure Sc for small fields (e.g., IMRT or stereotactic radiosurgery). This report presents a review of the components of Sc, including headscatter, source-obscuring, and monitor-backscattering effects. A review of calculation methods (Monte Carlo and empirical) used to calculate Sc for arbitrary shaped fields is presented. The authors discussed the use of Sc in photon dose calculation algorithms, in particular, monitor unit calculation. Finally, a summary of Sc data (from RPC and other institutions) is included for QA purposes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 36, no 11, 5261-5291 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-126263DOI: 10.1118/1.3227367ISI: 000271217900046PubMedID: 19994536OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-126263DiVA: diva2:322614
Available from: 2010-06-07 Created: 2010-06-07 Last updated: 2011-01-17Bibliographically approved

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