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Use of wide-angle X-ray diffraction to measure shape and size of dispersed colloidal particles
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Materials Physics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
2009 (English)In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 338, no 1, 105-110 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Laboratory X-ray diffraction is used to investigate the size and shape of dispersed plate-like and spherical colloidal particles. Analysis of the wide-angle diffraction data provides information about the size and shape of crystals from the width of the Bragg peaks according to the Debye-Scherrer formula. The measurements, data analysis, and evaluation are discussed. It is shown that X-ray diffraction with conventional laboratory equipment on dispersed particles is feasible as a tool to determine both particle size and shape. Data for two samples - gold colloids and nickel (II) hydroxide particles are presented. The advantages and limitations of the method are discussed. X-ray diffraction measurements that are made in combination with dynamic light scattering can be used to estimate the thickness of stabilizing layers of polymers. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 338, no 1, 105-110 p.
Keyword [en]
Size determination, Shape analysis, X-ray diffraction, Gold particles, Nickel hydroxide colloids
National Category
Physical Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-128287DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2009.06.006ISI: 000269401200014OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-128287DiVA: diva2:331081
Available from: 2010-07-21 Created: 2010-07-20 Last updated: 2013-11-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Flow of Colloidal Mesophases
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flow of Colloidal Mesophases
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This dissertation presents new work and results in the flow of complex fluids and experimental methodologies for their investigation. Plate-like colloidal particles of kaolinite and nickel hydroxide are studied. A study of lamellar fragments and their mixture with the nickel hydroxide particles is also presented. The lamellar fragments are self-assembled structures of surfactant molecules that approximate disks.

Particles are seen to align with their large faces parallel to the flow direction under shear and elongational strains. Order parameters have been calculated to quantify the extent of preferential alignment and direction of orientation. The experimental data are supported by comparisons with finite-element fluid mechanics calculations that provide estimates of the flow patterns and the strain rates. Elongational strain rates in the range of 5 − 20 s−1 are required to induce a high degree of alignment with the various sizes of the particles whereas about two to three order of magnitude higher shear strain rates are required. The combination of both elongational and shear strain is an effective means to provide a uniform alignment. Comparison of the Peclet numbers calculated for both the shear and elongational flow are presented and this explains that alignment occurs when the energy per particle of the strain is larger than the thermal energy. Mixtures have shown complex behavior: significant changes in the structure are observed that are not seen to the same extent in samples at rest.

X-ray diffraction and small-angle neutron scattering techniques are used to characterize the samples and determine the structure in flowing systems. Laboratory X-ray diffraction can be used to characterize dispersed samples. The combination of dynamic light scattering and X-ray diffraction was used to estimate the thickness of the stabilizing layers of the polymer on the colloidal particles. Scattering of synchrotron radiation and neutrons are powerful complementary techniques to provide information about flow and the potential to apply them to systems that are beyond the scope of simple simulations has been demonstrated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2011. 45 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 838
National Category
Physical Sciences
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-152872 (URN)978-91-554-8101-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-06-14, Häggsalen, Ångström Laboratory, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Available from: 2011-05-24 Created: 2011-05-02 Last updated: 2011-07-01Bibliographically approved

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Rennie, Adrian R.
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