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A broadly absorbing perylene dye for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry.
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2009 (English)In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 113, no 33, 14595-14597 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present a new perylene sensitizer, ID 176, for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The dye has the capability for very high photocurrents due to strong absorption from 400 to over 700 rim. Photocurrents Of LIP to 9 mA cm(-2) were achieved in solid-state DSCs employing the hole conductor 2,2'7,7'-tetrakis-(NN-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD), with a conversion efficiency of 3.2%. In contrast, the sensitizer did not perform well in conjunction with liquid iodide/tri-iodide electrolytes, suggesting a difference in the injection and regeneration mechanisms in these two types of dye-sensitized solar cells.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 113, no 33, 14595-14597 p.
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-128305DOI: 10.1021/jp906409qISI: 000268907500004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-128305DiVA: diva2:331156
Available from: 2010-07-21 Created: 2010-07-20 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Characterisation of Organic Dyes for Solid State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterisation of Organic Dyes for Solid State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Energy from the sun can be converted to low cost electricity using dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Dye molecules adsorbed to the surface of mesoporous TiO2 absorb light and inject electrons into the semiconductor. They are then regenerated by the reduced redox species from an electrolyte, typically consisting of the iodide/tri-iodide redox couple in an organic solvent. In a solid state version of the DSC, the liquid electrolyte is replaced by an organic hole conductor. Solid state DSCs using 2,2'7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) have reached conversion efficiencies of up to 6 %, which is about half of the efficiency of the best iodide/tri-iodide cells.

 

Measurement techniques, such as spectroelectrochemistry and photo-induced absorption spectroscopy (PIA), were developed and applied to study the working mechanism of organic dyes in solid state DSCs under solar cell operating conditions. The energy alignment of the different solar cell components was studied by spectroelectrochemistry and the results were compared to photoelectron spectroscopy. PIA was used to study the injection and regeneration processes. For the first time, it was shown here that the results of PIA are influenced by an electric field due to the electrons injected into the TiO2. This electric field causes a shift in the absorption spectrum of dye molecules adsorbed to the TiO2 surface due to the Stark effect.

 

Taking the Stark effect into consideration during the data analysis, mechanistic differences between solid state and conventional DSCs were found. A perylene dye, ID176, was only able to efficiently inject electrons into the TiO2 in presence of lithium ions and in absence of a solvent. As a result, the sensitiser worked surprisingly well in solid state DSCs but not in liquid electrolyte ones. Regeneration of oxidised dye molecules by spiro-MeOTAD was found to be fast and efficient and spiro-MeOTAD could even reduce excited dye molecules.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2011. 89 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 814
Keyword
energy alignment, hole conductor, injection, interface, perylene, photo-induced absorption, regeneration, spectroelectrochemistry, spiro-MeOTAD, Stark effect, titanium dioxide
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Research subject
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-150047 (URN)978-91-554-8042-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-05-13, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-04-20 Created: 2011-03-25 Last updated: 2011-05-04Bibliographically approved
2. Materials Development for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Materials Development for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) is a photovoltaic technology with the potential to efficiently and economically harvest and convert energy from the sun to electrical power. DSCs are built using abundant and low cost materials such as titanium dioxide (TiO2) and organic dye molecules. The dye molecule acts as a light absorber funneling electrons from its photo-excited state to the TiO2. A redox mediator which typical consists of iodide/tri-iodide undergoes redox reactions at the counter electrode and the oxidized dye molecule creating a circuit between the two. Solid-state versions of the DSC are also being investigated. In these devices the liquid electrolyte is exchanged with solid hole transporting material in order to both simplify the solar cell production as well as increasing the open-circuit potential and stability of the solar cell. One main draw-back, which limits the increase in conversion efficiency of solid-state DSC is the faster electron recombination dynamics between electrons in the TiO2 and holes in the solid hole transporter. Currently the highest performing liquid electrolyte DSC reaches a conversion efficiency of over 12 %, while the solid-state DSC is tailing with 7 %.

 Materials development is crucial for further development of the DSC technology, hopefully leading to better stability and higher efficiency. Many types of dye molecules, redox mediators as well as hole transporting materials and working electrode materials have all been tested and modified in the past in order to improve DSC performance. Significant further improvement of DSC technology requires a better understanding of the operating principle behind the DSC and the interaction between the different components. This requires advanced characterization methods for materials and solar cells. In this thesis, new materials for DSC have been developed, tested and characterized using advanced methods. 

 Atomic layer deposition was employed to develop a new working electrodes based on the core-shell SnO2-TiO2 material. These working electrodes were successfully used in both liquid and solid-state DSC to decrease the electron recombination dynamics and increase conversion efficiencies. The molecular structure of sensitizing dyes also plays a major role in electron recombination. Thus, investigating different molecular structures of sensitizing dyes is of importance when trying to improve DSC performance. Seven new molecular dye structures based on three different chromophore units were investigated in both liquid electrolyte and solid-state DSC. For example, adding a second anchoring group on the D35 molecular structure improved the light harvesting capabilities of the dye but did not result in DSC devices with higher conversion efficiency. Increasing the bulkiness of the molecular dye structure facing away from the TiO2 surface yielded on the other hand higher both slower electron recombination and higher conversion efficiencies.

 The effects of oxygen on solid-state DSC using spiro-OMeTAD were also studied. The chemical oxidation of the solid-state hole transporting material was found to depend on both time and storing conditions of the complete DSC devices. Solar cells with higher conversion efficiency were found for solid-state DSC stored under ambient air conditions before measured.

 Finally, a novel and efficient organic tandem solar cell was demonstrated built using a solid-state DSC and a bulk heterojunction solar. The 6 % efficient tandem cell almost perfectly added the photo-potentials of the subcells together while keeping the photo-current intact.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. 89 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 892
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-165458 (URN)978-91-554-8255-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-02-24, Polhemssalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-02-03 Created: 2012-01-08 Last updated: 2012-02-15

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Cappel, Ute B.Karlsson, Martin H.Boschloo, GerritHagfeldt, Anders

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