uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
A unique virus release mechanism in the Archaea
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Molecular Evolution.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Molecular Evolution.
Show others and affiliations
2009 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 106, no 27, 11306-11311 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Little is known about the infection cycles of viruses infecting cells from Archaea, the third domain of life. Here, we demonstrate that the virions of the archaeal Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2 (SIRV2) are released from the host cell through a mechanism, involving the formation of specific cellular structures. Large pyramidal virus-induced protrusions transect the cell envelope at several positions, rupturing the S-layer; they eventually open out, thus creating large apertures through which virions escape the cell. We also demonstrate that massive degradation of the host chromosomes occurs because of virus infection, and that virion assembly occurs in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, intracellular viral DNA is visualized by flow cytometry. The results show that SIRV2 is a lytic virus, and that the host cell dies as a consequence of elaborated mechanisms orchestrated by the virus. The generation of specific cellular structures for a distinct step of virus life cycle is known in eukaryal virus-host systems but is unprecedented in cells from other domains.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 106, no 27, 11306-11311 p.
Keyword [en]
lysis, virus factory, hyperthermophile, infection cycle
National Category
Biological Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-128369DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0901238106ISI: 000267796100079OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-128369DiVA: diva2:331421
Available from: 2010-07-22 Created: 2010-07-20 Last updated: 2012-01-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Unique Solutions to Universal Problems: Studies of the Archaeal Cell
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unique Solutions to Universal Problems: Studies of the Archaeal Cell
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Archaea is one of the three domains of life and studies of archaeal biology are important for understanding of life in extreme environments, fundamental biogeochemical processes, the origin of life, the eukaryotic cell and their own, unique biology. This thesis presents four studies of the archaeal cell, using the extremophilic Sulfolobus and ocean living Nitrosopumilus as model systems.

Cell division in crenarchaea is shown to be carried out by a previously unknown system named Cdv (cell division). The system shares homology with the eukaryotic ESCRT-III system which is used for membrane reorganization during vesicle formation, viral release and cytokinesis. Organisms of the phylum Thaumarchaeota also use the Cdv system, despite also carrying genes for the euryarchaeal and bacterial cell division system FtsZ.

The thaumarchaeal cell cycle is demonstrated to be dominated by the prereplicative and replicative stage, in contrasts to the crenarchaeal cell cycle where the cell at the majority of the time resides in the postreplicative stage. The replication rate is remarkably low and closer to what is measured for eukaryotes than other archaea.

The gene organization of Sulfolobus is significantly associated with the three origins of replication. The surrounding regions are dense with genes of high importance for the organisms such as highly transcribed genes, genes with known function in fundamental cellular processes and conserved archaeal genes. The overall gene density is elevated and transposons are underrepresented.

The archaeal virus SIRV2 displays a lytic life style where the host cell at the final stage of infection is disrupted for release of new virus particles. The remarkable pyramid-like structure VAP (virus associated pyramids), that is formed independently of the virus particle, is used for cell lysis.

The research presented in this thesis describes unique features of the archaeal cell and influences our understanding of the entire tree of life.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. 72 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 888
Archaea, Cdv, Cell cycle, Cell division, Cell lysis, Crenarchaea, ESCRT-III, Flow cytometry, Microarray, Microscopy, Nitrosopumilus, SIRV2, Sulfolobus, Thaumarchaea, Transcription, VAP, Virus
National Category
Microbiology Cell Biology
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Molecular Evolution
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-162886 (URN)978-91-554-8244-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-02-03, C4:301, Biomedicinskt Centrum, Husargatan 3; BMC, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Available from: 2012-01-10 Created: 2011-12-05 Last updated: 2012-01-16

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Bernander, Rolf
By organisation
Molecular Evolution
In the same journal
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Biological Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 176 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link