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Differences in utilization of asthma drugs between two neighbouring Swedish provinces: relation to symptom reporting
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy.
1993 (English)In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 6, 198-203 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
1993. Vol. 6, 198-203 p.
Keyword [en]
asthma, chronic bronchitis, epidemiology, obstructive airways symptoms, anti-asthma drugs
National Category
Respiratory Medicine and Allergy
Research subject
Lung Medicine
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-133046OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-133046DiVA: diva2:360040
Available from: 2010-11-01 Created: 2010-11-01 Last updated: 2010-11-25
In thesis
1. A Longitudinal Study of Asthma: Risk Factors and Prognosis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Longitudinal Study of Asthma: Risk Factors and Prognosis
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis was to identify risk factors for the onset of adult asthma. Other objectives were to study determinants of smoking habits and the association between sensitization and outcome of asthma.

In 1990, a questionnaire was distributed to 12,732 individuals from three age groups (16, 30-39 and 60-69 years) in two counties of Sweden. In a second phase, 2538 subjects who had reported respiratory symptoms and 600 controls were invited to clinical investigations, 81% participated. At the follow-up in 2003 subjects of the remaining cohort (11,282) were re-invited. Analyses are based on the 67% (n=7563) who responded to both questionnaires 1990 and 2003.

In 2003, 17.2% of the young adults, 11.4% of the middle-aged and 10.3% of the elderly reported having, or having had, asthma. A total of 791 subjects reported onset of asthma during the 13-year study period. Lifestyle factors such as smoking, obesity, hard physical training and a low consumption of fruit and fish were constant risk factors for onset of asthma after adjusting for socioeconomic group. A smoker’s risk of asthma onset was increased by 37%. The impact of risk factors differed between the age-groups. BMI had a significantly higher impact in the middle-aged and elderly.

In subjects participating in the clinical investigations in 1990, sensitization to pets, were determinants of both persistent asthma and onset of asthma in 2003. The risk for persistent asthma was threefold. The risk for onset of asthma was more than doubled.

Smoking at baseline in 1990 was the strongest determinant of being a smoker in 2003. Allergic sensitization and clinically verified asthma were not associated with smoking habits in 2003. No differences in changing smoking habits could be identified between smokers with or without asthma.

In conclusion, modifiable lifestyle factors are important risk factors for adult onset asthma. The co-occurrence and interplay between asthma and cigarette smoking is still puzzling.


Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2010. 52 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 622
asthma epidemiology, longitudinal studies, obstructive airway symptoms, risk factors, BMI, diet, smoking, allergic sensitization, atopy
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-133218 (URN)978-91-554-7948-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-12-16, Enghoffsalen, Ing 50, Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala, 13:15 (Swedish)
Available from: 2010-11-24 Created: 2010-11-03 Last updated: 2011-01-13Bibliographically approved

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