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Effects of dietary fat modification on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in the LIPGENE study
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
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2010 (English)In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 104, no 9, 1357-1362 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) have enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation. Dietary fat quality has been proposed to be implicated in these conditions. We investigated the impact of four diets distinct in fat quantity and quality on 8-iso-PGF2α (a major F2-isoprostane and oxidative stress indicator), 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-PGF2α (15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α, a major PGF2α metabolite and marker of cyclooxygenase-mediated inflammation) and C-reactive protein (CRP). In a 12-week parallel multicentre dietary intervention study (LIPGENE), 417 volunteers with the MetS were randomly assigned to one of the four diets: two high-fat diets (38 % energy (%E)) rich in SFA or MUFA and two low-fat high-complex carbohydrate diets (28 %E) with (LFHCC n-3) or without (LFHCC) 1·24 g/d of very long chain n-3 fatty acid supplementation. Urinary levels of 8-iso-PGF2α and 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α were determined by RIA and adjusted for urinary creatinine levels. Serum concentration of CRP was measured by ELISA. Neither concentrations of 8-iso-PGF2α and 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α nor those of CRP differed between diet groups at baseline (P>0·07) or at the end of the study (P>0·44). Also, no differences in changes of the markers were observed between the diet groups (8-iso-PGF2α, P = 0·83; 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α, P = 0·45; and CRP, P = 0·97). In conclusion, a 12-week dietary fat modification did not affect the investigated markers of oxidative stress and inflammation among subjects with the MetS in the LIPGENE study.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 104, no 9, 1357-1362 p.
Keyword [en]
Dietary fat; Oxidative stress; Inflammation; Metabolic syndrome; LIPGENE study
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-133408DOI: 10.1017/S000711451000228XISI: 000284015300012PubMedID: 20569506OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-133408DiVA: diva2:368719
Available from: 2010-11-09 Created: 2010-11-09 Last updated: 2011-08-26Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Dietary Fatty Acids and Inflammation: Observational and Interventional Studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dietary Fatty Acids and Inflammation: Observational and Interventional Studies
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Dietary fat quality influences the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A low-grade inflammation is suggested to contribute to the disease development, often accompanied by obesity. Whereas n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been considered anti-inflammatory, n-6 PUFA have been proposed to act pro-inflammatory. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) act pro-inflammatory in vitro.

This thesis aimed to investigate effects of different fatty acids on low-grade inflammation in observational and interventional studies. In Paper I and II, fatty acid composition in serum cholesterol esters was used as objective marker of dietary fat quality and related to serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and other circulating inflammatory markers in two population-based cohorts, conducted in middle-aged men and elderly men and women, respectively. In Paper III and IV, the impact of diets differing in fat quality on inflammation and oxidative stress was investigated in randomised controlled studies, in subjects with metabolic syndrome and abdominal obesity.

In Paper I and II, a low proportion of linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) in serum was associated with higher CRP concentrations, indicating that a low intake of vegetable fats may be related to low-grade inflammation. High CRP concentrations were also associated with high proportions of palmitoleic (16:1) and oleic (18:1) acids and high stearoyl coenzymeA desaturase index, possibly reflecting altered fat metabolism and/or high SFA intake in this population. When comparing two high-fat diets rich in either saturated or monounsaturated fat, and two low-fat diets with or without long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation during 12 weeks (Paper III), no differences in inflammation or oxidative stress markers were observed. Moreover, a 10-week intervention (Paper IV) with high linoleic acid intake showed no adverse effects on inflammation or oxidative stress. Instead, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 decreased after linoleic acid intake compared with a diet high in SFA.

The results in this thesis indicate that dietary n-6 PUFA found in vegetable fats is associated with lower inflammation marker levels, and to some extent reduces systemic inflammation when compared with SFA. Supplementation of n-3 PUFA did not exert any systemic anti-inflammatory effects, maybe due to a relatively low dose.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2011. 75 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 683
Dietary fat, Fatty acids, Serum fatty acid composition, Linoleic acid, Stearoyl coenzymeA desaturase, SCD-1, Inflammation, C-reactive protein, Oxidative stress, Lipid peroxidation, Isoprostanes, Prostaglandins, Obesity, Epidemiology, Dietary intervention, Metabolic syndrome
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Immunology in the medical area Endocrinology and Diabetes Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Research subject
Medical Science
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-156074 (URN)978-91-554-8112-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-09-14, Sal IV, Universitetshuset, Biskopsgatan 3, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Available from: 2011-08-24 Created: 2011-07-11 Last updated: 2011-12-06

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