Background: The link between squamous cell cervical carcinoma and human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 is well established, but the magnitude of the risk association is uncertain and the importance of other high-risk HPV (HRHPV) types is unclear. Methods: In two prospective nested case-control series among women participating in cytologic screening in Sweden, we collected 2,772 cervical smears from 515 women with cancer in situ (CIS), 315 with invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and individually matched controls. All smears were tested for HPV with PCR assays, and the median follow-up until diagnosis was 5 to 7 years. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results: The presence of HPV16/18 in the first smear was associated with 8.5-fold (95% CI, 5.3-13.7) and 18.6-fold (95% CI, 9.0-38.9) increased risks of CIS and SCC, respectively, compared with women negative for HPV. Infection with other HRHPV types in the first smear was also associated with significantly increased risks for both CIS and SCC. Persistence of HPV16 infection conferred a RR of 18.5 (95% CI, 6.5-52.9) for CIS and 19.5 (95% CI, 4.7-81.7) for SCC. The HPV16/18 attributable risk proportion was estimated at 30% to 50% for CIS, and 41% to 47% for SCC. Other HRHPV types also conferred significant proportions. Conclusions: Our large population-based study provides quantification of risks for different HPV types and prospective evidence that non-16/18 HRHPV types increase the risk for future cervical cancer. Impact: This study gives further insights into cervical cancer risk stratification with implications for HPV-based prevention strategies.
2010. Vol. 19, no 10, 2469-2478 p.