Posaconazole in human serum: A greater pharmacodynamic effect than predicted by the non-protein-bound serum concentration
2011 (English)In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ISSN 0066-4804, E-ISSN 1098-6596, Vol. 55, no 7, 3099-3104 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
It is generally accepted that only the unbound fraction of a drug is pharmacologically active. Posaconazole is an antifungal agent with a protein binding of 98 to 99%. Taking into account the degree of protein binding, plasma levels in patients, and MIC levels of susceptible strains, it can be assumed that the free concentration of posaconazole sometimes will be too low to exert the expected antifungal effect. The aim was therefore to test the activity of posaconazole in serum in comparison with that of the calculated unbound concentrations in protein-free media. Significant differences (P < 0.05) from the serum control were found at serum concentrations of posaconazole of 1.0 and 0.10 mg/liter, with calculated free concentrations corresponding to 1× MIC and 0.1× MIC, respectively, against one Candida lusitaniae strain selected for proof of principle. In RPMI 1640, the corresponding calculated unbound concentration of 0.015 mg/liter resulted in a significant effect, whereas that of 0.0015 mg/liter did not. Also, against seven additional Candida strains tested, there was an effect of the low posaconazole concentration in serum, in contrast to the results in RPMI 1640. Fluconazole, a low-grade-protein-bound antifungal, was used for comparison at corresponding concentrations in serum and RPMI 1640. No effect was observed at the serum concentration, resulting in a calculated unbound concentration of 0.1× MIC. In summary, there was a substantially greater pharmacodynamic effect of posaconazole in human serum than could be predicted by the non-protein-bound serum concentration. A flux from serum protein-bound to fungal lanosterol 14α-demethylase-bound posaconazole is suggested.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 55, no 7, 3099-3104 p.
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-134877DOI: 10.1128/AAC.01671-10ISI: 000291687900005PubMedID: 21502622OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-134877DiVA: diva2:374004