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Characterization, and comparison, of human clinical and black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus) extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing bacterial isolates from Kalmar, on the southeast coast of Sweden
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases. (Infektionssjukdomar, Björn Olsen)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases. (Infektionssjukdomar)
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2010 (English)In: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, ISSN 0305-7453, E-ISSN 1460-2091, Vol. 65, no 9, 1939-1944 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Antibiotic resistance is one of the great challenges for modern healthcare. In Gram-negative bacteria, CTX-M-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have been rapidly spreading through Europe since the early 2000s. In Sweden, ESBL-producing Escherichia coli are still rare, but a 3-fold increase has been seen from 2004 to 2007. Enterobacteria and normal flora of wild animals, with or without antibiotic resistance traits, constitute a potential source of human infection and colonization. We studied wild birds with the aim to understand the environmental dissemination of antibiotic resistance and, focusing on clinically relevant resistance types, we made comparisons with human clinical samples. In this study, ESBL-producing human clinical isolates and isolates from juvenile black-headed gulls from Kalmar County hospital and the city of Kalmar, respectively, on the southeast coast of Sweden, were characterized and compared. Despite a low frequency of antibiotic resistance among the isolates from gulls, ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were found, two with bla(CTX-M-14) and one with bla(CTX-M-15). The same CTX-M types were dominant among human ESBL isolates. In addition, gull isolates were dispersed among the human samples in the PhenePlate (TM) clustering system, indicating that they neither differ from the human isolates nor form any separate clonal clustering. The finding of CTX-M-type ESBLs in E. coli isolated from black-headed gulls in Sweden, where 'background resistance' is low, is consistent with an ongoing environmental spread of these plasmid-borne resistance genes. The results indicate that a potential for transfer between the human population and environment exists even in countries with a low level of antibiotic resistance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 65, no 9, 1939-1944 p.
Keyword [en]
ESBL, CTX-M, clinical, environmental, wild birds
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-135394DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkq222ISI: 000280921400013OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-135394DiVA: diva2:374971
Available from: 2010-12-07 Created: 2010-12-06 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Antibiotic Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Wild Birds
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antibiotic Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Wild Birds
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The presence and spread of clinically important antibiotic-resistant bacteria in reservoirs from natural environments are not well studied compared to the clinical environments. The overall aim of this project was to study the presence of clinically important antibiotic-resistant bacteria in a reservoir from natural environments. Wild birds were chosen not only as indicators of the level of antibiotic resistance in surrounding natural bacterial populations, but also since birds can act as vectors of several potential pathogens including enteropathogens and because they by migration have an ability to spread these pathogens across geographical regions.

The studies in this thesis showed that wild birds carry antibiotic-resistant enterobacteriaceae. The levels and spectrum of antibiotic resistance varies between different bird populations and geographical regions. In bird populations without interaction with human activities throughout the year, antibiotic resistance is lacking. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria could however probably be dispersed to remote regions by bird migration. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and especially CTX-M types are found in comparable high levels in gull populations considering the recent emergence of these resistance genes in clinical settings. The CTX-M types found in wild birds are the same types that are found in clinical settings and in food producing animals from the same regions. ESBL-producing E. coli isolated from Yellow-legged Gulls are genetically heterogenous, reflecting that these resistance genes are present across the full E. coli genetic diversity. In wild birds CTX-M are found both in E. coli strains with previously known “human signature” as well as “novel” strains. This indicates that these genes are indeed very mobile and rapidly dispersing both through horizontal gene transfer and through successful clones. The findings in this thesis indicate that bird colonies could act as melting pots and reservoirs for new resistance types and that wild birds could act as important indicators of the level of antibiotic resistance dispersal in natural environments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2011. 61 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 641
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-145480 (URN)978-91-554-8000-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-03-25, Hjärnan, Hus 15, Länssjukhuset, Lasarettsvägen, Kalmar, 09:00 (Swedish)
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Available from: 2011-03-04 Created: 2011-02-09 Last updated: 2017-05-11Bibliographically approved

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