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Globally disseminated human pathogenic Escherichia coli of O25b-ST131 clone, harbouring blaCTX-M-15, found in Glaucous-winged gull at remote Commander Islands, Russia
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases. (Infektionssjukdomar)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases. (Infektionssjukdomar, Björn Olsen)
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2010 (English)In: Environmental Microbiology Reports, ISSN 1758-2229, Vol. 2, no 2, 329-332 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With focus on environmental dissemination of antibiotic resistance among clinically relevant bacteria, such as the rising ESBL type of resistance among Escherichia coli, we investigated antibiotic resistance levels in wild birds in the Commander Islands and Kamchatka, Russia. Despite overall low resistance levels in randomly selected E. coli (one from each sample), we found multi-resistant ESBL-producing E. coli harbouring bla(CTX-M-14) and bla(CTX-M-15) using selective screening. Among these multi-resistant ESBL-producing E. coli we found one bla(CTX-M-15) harbouring strain belonging to the O25b-ST131 clone, recognized for its clonal disseminated worldwide as a human pathogen. The potential in acquiring resistant bacteria of human origin, especially highly pathogenic clones, as well as downstream consequences of that, should not be underestimated but further investigated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 2, no 2, 329-332 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Biological Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-136037DOI: 10.1111/j.1758-2229.2010.00142.xISI: 000279432000014OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-136037DiVA: diva2:376073
Available from: 2010-12-09 Created: 2010-12-09 Last updated: 2015-01-22Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Antibiotic Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Wild Birds
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antibiotic Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Wild Birds
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The presence and spread of clinically important antibiotic-resistant bacteria in reservoirs from natural environments are not well studied compared to the clinical environments. The overall aim of this project was to study the presence of clinically important antibiotic-resistant bacteria in a reservoir from natural environments. Wild birds were chosen not only as indicators of the level of antibiotic resistance in surrounding natural bacterial populations, but also since birds can act as vectors of several potential pathogens including enteropathogens and because they by migration have an ability to spread these pathogens across geographical regions.

The studies in this thesis showed that wild birds carry antibiotic-resistant enterobacteriaceae. The levels and spectrum of antibiotic resistance varies between different bird populations and geographical regions. In bird populations without interaction with human activities throughout the year, antibiotic resistance is lacking. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria could however probably be dispersed to remote regions by bird migration. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and especially CTX-M types are found in comparable high levels in gull populations considering the recent emergence of these resistance genes in clinical settings. The CTX-M types found in wild birds are the same types that are found in clinical settings and in food producing animals from the same regions. ESBL-producing E. coli isolated from Yellow-legged Gulls are genetically heterogenous, reflecting that these resistance genes are present across the full E. coli genetic diversity. In wild birds CTX-M are found both in E. coli strains with previously known “human signature” as well as “novel” strains. This indicates that these genes are indeed very mobile and rapidly dispersing both through horizontal gene transfer and through successful clones. The findings in this thesis indicate that bird colonies could act as melting pots and reservoirs for new resistance types and that wild birds could act as important indicators of the level of antibiotic resistance dispersal in natural environments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2011. 61 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 641
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-145480 (URN)978-91-554-8000-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-03-25, Hjärnan, Hus 15, Länssjukhuset, Lasarettsvägen, Kalmar, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-03-04 Created: 2011-02-09 Last updated: 2017-05-11Bibliographically approved
2. Human Pathogens and Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Polar Regions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human Pathogens and Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Polar Regions
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Coincident with human activity in recent decades, human-associated microorganisms have arrived to the Antarctic region, possibly linked to increasing presence of scientific bases and ship-borne tourists. In the Arctic, humans have been present for a very long time, and the few parts of the Arctic without human activities is decreasing with time. The studies in this thesis investigate the occurrence of different pathogens in Antarctic and Arctic wildlife, especially in birds. The first study shows the existence of Enteropatogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) in Antarctic fur seals. The EPEC isolates were so called atypical EPECs, carrying the eae gene but lacking the bfp gene. This is the first record of a diarrheogenic E. coli in wild animals in the Antarctic. The second study displays that spreading of antibiotic resistance mechanisms appears to be much more efficient than previously was known. Enterococcus faecium isolated from Alaskan birds showed high resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin, but also to ampicillin and ciprofloxacin. These isolates also carried vanA genes and the virulent esp gene, which places the isolates in the clinical clone CC17 and indicates the isolates had a human origin. Bacteria from birds that reside in the Bering Strait region in the third study, demonstrates that only six of 145 E. coli from 532 birds had reduced antibiotic susceptibility. Despite this, selective screen on E. coli showed only four ESBL-producing isolates. The four E. coli isolates carried CTX-M genes. One isolate belonged to the E. coli O25b - ST131 genotype, which is a successful clone with a global spread. In the fourth study, 123 seawater samples and 400 fresh penguin feces were analyzed. From these, 71 E. coli strains were isolated and only one E. coli from penguins was resistant to one antibiotic (cloramfenicol), whereas in E. coli from seawater, resistance against ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin and trim-sulfa were detected. E. coli carrying ESBL type CTX -M genes were also detected and Multilocus Sequencing Typing (MLST) showed six different sequence types (ST) previously reported in humans: ST131, ST227, ST401, ST410, ST685 and ST937. In the short time interval between the second study (2005) and the third study (2010) in relation to the fifth study (2012) we found a dramatic increase in antibiotic-resistant genes in the Arctic region. Enterococci, E. coli, and Kl. pneumoniae carried antibiotic resistance genes to an extent and variety not previously reported. E. coli from Arctic birds showed resistant to 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 different antibiotics. Resistant gene type vanA was confirmed in enterococci and ESBL genes type TEM, SHV and CTX-M in E. coli and Kl. pneumoniae was detected. Multilocus Sequencing typing (MLST), indicating that both E. coli and Kl. pneumoniae carrying ESBL markers that connects them to the humans. In summary, the combined studies strengthen that bacteria that cause infections in humans could spread to relatively pristine environments. We concluded that human and associated antibiotic-resistant bacteria has reached a global level, then we showed that ESBL- carrying bacteria circulating nowadays also in the last ESBL-free continent, Antarctica.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2014. 57 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1023
Keyword
ESBL, Antibiotic Resistance, Polar Regions, Wild Birds
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Research subject
Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-230700 (URN)978-91-554-9016-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-10-10, Kalmar hospital, auditorium hjärnan, Lasarettsvägen 1, Kalmar, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-09-18 Created: 2014-08-28 Last updated: 2015-01-22

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