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A chemometrical approach to study interactions between ethynylestradiol and an AhR-agonist in stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organism Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organism Biology, Environmental Toxicology. (Computational Environmental Toxicology)
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2010 (English)In: Journal of Chemometrics, ISSN 0886-9383, E-ISSN 1099-128X, Vol. 24, no 11-12, 768-778 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Quantifiable responses in fish, such as induction of certain proteins, can be used as indicators of chemical contamination of waterways. In order to evaluate differences in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction capacity of the gill and the liver and effects on organs and biomarker proteins, e.g. gill and liver EROD, hepatosomatic index (HSI), nephrosomatic index (NSI), gonadosomatic index (GSI), spiggin, vitellogenin and sperm motility were analysed in male three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) exposed for 21 days to β-naphthoflavone (βNF) alone (Exp 1) or in combination with 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) (Exp 2). The sperm motility variables were studied using computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA).

Exp 1: Gill EROD activity was significantly induced in fish exposed to ≥1.2 µg/l and hepatic EROD activity in fish exposed to ≥6 µg/l. No significant effect of ßNF on the production of spiggin or vitellogenin or on sperm variables was found.

Exp 2: A significant additative effect of EE2 + βNF was shown for gill EROD. A significant antagonistic effect of the two compounds was found on NSI where an increased EE2 concentration led to an increase in NSI while an increased concentration of βNF led to a decreased NSI. Interestingly, the results showed that exposure to intermediate concentrations of EE2 and ßNF led to a significant increase in the sperm variables. In the aquatic environment mixtures of numerous chemicals with oestrogenic activity are present, so if the capacity to induce gill EROD activity is a general property of oestrogen-acting chemicals, our findings are important.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 24, no 11-12, 768-778 p.
Keyword [en]
Doehlert design, gill EROD activity, hepatic EROD activity, sperm motility
National Category
Biological Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-136127DOI: 10.1002/cem.1368ISI: 000286291500016OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-136127DiVA: diva2:376298
Available from: 2010-12-10 Created: 2010-12-10 Last updated: 2011-03-15Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Evaluation of Biomarker Responses in Fish: with Special Emphasis on Gill EROD Activity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Biomarker Responses in Fish: with Special Emphasis on Gill EROD Activity
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Many chemicals present in the aquatic environment can interfere with physiological functions in fish. Exposure to chemicals can be revealed by the use of biomarkers. Induction of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity is a commonly used biomarker for exposure to CYP1A inducers such as dioxins and polyaromatic hyrdrocarbons. Vitellogenin is a frequently used biomarker for estrogenic compounds in various fish species whereas a biomarker for androgens, spiggin, is only found in sticklebacks. The main objectives of this thesis were to evaluate gill EROD activity as a biomarker and the three-spined stickleback as a model species in ecotoxicological studies.

EROD activities were measured in gill, liver and kidney in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) caged in urban areas in Sweden. EROD induction was most pronounced in the gill. Also in fish caged at reference sites, with an expected low level of known CYP1A inducers, a marked gill EROD induction was found. One suggested inducer in rural waters is humic substances (HS). To evaluate the EROD-inducing capacity of HS, three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were exposed to HS of natural or synthetic origin. Both kinds of HS caused significant EROD induction. Gill EROD activities were also induced in sticklebacks exposed to ethynylestradiol (EE2) and β-naphthoflavone (βNF), alone and in combinations. Production of vitellogenin was induced in sticklebacks exposed to ≥50 ng EE2/l and a significant decrease in spiggin production was observed in individuals exposed to 170 ng EE2/l.

Results from this thesis further strengthen the contention that gill EROD activity is a very sensitive biomarker for CYP1A inducers and that the stickleback is a suitable biomonitoring species, especially for exposure to CYP1A inducers. The finding that not only classical CYP1A inducers but also HS and high EE2 concentrations stimulate gill EROD activity is of significance for the interpretation of biomonitoring data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2007. 59 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 345
Biology, three-spined stickleback, biomarker, EROD, ethynylestradiol, gill, vitellogenin, spiggin, CYP1A inducers, humic substances, sperm quality, biomonitoring, Biologi
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-8222 (URN)978-91-554-6975-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-10-19, Lindahlsalen, EBC, Norbyvägen 18A, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Available from: 2007-09-28 Created: 2007-09-28 Last updated: 2011-01-27Bibliographically approved

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