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Temperature measurements in a linear generator and marine substation for wave power
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
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2012 (English)In: Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering-Transactions of The Asme, ISSN 0892-7219, E-ISSN 1528-896X, Vol. 134, no 2, 021901- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper analyzes temperature measurements acquired in the offshore operation of a wave energy converter array. The three directly driven wave energy converters have linear generators and are connected to a marine substation placed on the seabed. The highly irregular individual linear generator voltages are rectified and added on a common dc-link and inverted to 50 Hz to facilitate future grid-connection. The electrical power is transmitted to shore and converted to heat in a measuring station. The first results of temperature measurements on substation components and on the stator of one of the linear generators are presented based on operation in linear and in nonlinear damping. The results indicate that there might be some convective heat transfer in the substation vessel. If high power levels are extracted from the waves, this has to be considered when placing components in the substation vessel in order to avoid heating from neighboring components. The results also indicate that the temperature increase in the linear generator stator is very small. Failure due to excessive heating of the stator winding polyvinyl chloride cable insulation is unlikely to occur even in very energetic sea states. Should this conclusion be incorrect, the thermal conductivity between the stator and the hull of the wave energy converter could be enhanced. Another suggested alteration is to lower the resistive losses by reducing the linear generator current density.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 134, no 2, 021901- p.
Keyword [en]
convection, linear machines, machine insulation, machine windings, offshore installations, power convertors, stators, substations, temperature measurement, wave power generation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-140113DOI: 10.1115/1.4004629ISI: 000308596500021OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-140113DiVA: diva2:383038
Available from: 2011-01-04 Created: 2011-01-04 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Electrical Systems for Wave Energy Conversion
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrical Systems for Wave Energy Conversion
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Wave energy is a renewable energy source with a large potential to contribute to the world's electricity production. There exist several technologies on how to convert the energy in the ocean waves into electric energy. The wave energy converter (WEC) presented in this thesis is based on a linear synchronous generator. The generator is placed on the seabed and driven by a point absorbing buoy on the ocean surface. Instead of having one large unit, several smaller units are interconnected to increase the total installed power.

To convert and interconnect the power from the generators, marine substations are used. The marine substations are placed on the seabed and convert the fluctuating AC from the generators into an AC suitable for grid connection.

The work presented in the thesis focuses on the first steps in the electric energy conversion, converting the voltage out from the generators into DC, which have an impact on the WEC's ability to absorb and produce power. The purpose has been to investigate how the generator will operate when it is subjected to different load cases and to obtain guidelines on how future systems could be improved. Offshore experiments and simulations have been done on full scale generators connected to four different loads, i.e. one linear resistive load and three different non-linear loads representing different cases for grid connected WECs.

The results show that the power can be controlled and optimized by choosing a suitable system for the WEC. It is not obvious which kind of system is the most preferable, since there are many different parameters that have an impact on the system performance, such as the size of the buoy, how the generator is designed, the number of WECs, the highest allowed complexity of the system, costs and so on. Therefore, the design of the electrical system should preferably be carried out in parallel with the design of the WEC in order to achieve an efficient system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2011. 104 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 797
Keyword
Wave power, direct driven linear generators, electrical systems, non-linear loads
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-140116 (URN)978-91-554-7982-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-02-18, Polhemsalen, Ångströmslaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Felaktigt tryckt som Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology 727

Available from: 2011-01-28 Created: 2011-01-04 Last updated: 2013-05-17Bibliographically approved
2. Experimental Measurement of Lateral Force in a Submerged Single Heaving Buoy Wave Energy Converter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Measurement of Lateral Force in a Submerged Single Heaving Buoy Wave Energy Converter
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The search for new solutions for the generation of energy is becoming more and more important for our future. Big arguments and disagreements on e.g. the questions of gas transport or the dependence on energy supplied by other countries raise demands on the development of new forms of alternative energy resources. Wave power is one of the main sources of renewable energy due to the high power density stored in ocean waves.

Nevertheless, the dynamic forces of waves are so large that serious questions popped up on how to design a system which could work even in an unfavourable wave climate or could at least retain working capabilities after big storms without significant damages.

This thesis studies the reliability of the mechanical parts of a linear direct driven permanent magnet generator. The results of offshore experiment where strain gauge sensors instrumented on the capsule and the inner framework structure are presented. Stress estimation analyses using strain gauges are carried out. A method for measuring forces and moments in the mechanical structure of the WEC is developed.

Evaluation of the lateral force acting on the outer structure is a key factor for the design and construction of the WEC. A method for the measurement of the lateral force acting on the capsule has been developed.

A study of the inclination angle between the Wave Energy Converter and the floating buoy has been carried out.

The aim of this work is to contribute to the development of wave energy conversion system, and especially to the estimation of structural loads which are important for the survivability of the system under hard sea states.

This work is a step that may influence future design of wave energy devices in terms of material aspect, survivability in a hard wave climate and cost-effective renewable energies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. 99 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 886
Keyword
Wave energy converter, Tight mooring system, Offshore measurement, Strain gauge, Estimation of stress, Lateral force, Inclination angle, Snatch load
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-159519 (URN)978-91-554-8240-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-02-03, Häggsalen, Ångströmslaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-01-12 Created: 2011-10-03 Last updated: 2012-01-16Bibliographically approved
3. Ocean Wave Energy: Underwater Substation System for Wave Energy Converters
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ocean Wave Energy: Underwater Substation System for Wave Energy Converters
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis deals with a system for operation of directly driven offshore wave energy converters. The work that has been carried out includes laboratory testing of a permanent magnet linear generator, wave energy converter mechanical design and offshore testing, and finally design, implementation, and offshore testing of an underwater collector substation. Long-term testing of a single point absorber, which was installed in March 2006, has been performed in real ocean waves in linear and in non-linear damping mode. The two different damping modes were realized by, first, a resistive load, and second, a rectifier with voltage smoothing capacitors and a resistive load in the DC-link. The loads are placed on land about 2 km east of the Lysekil wave energy research site, where the offshore experiments have been conducted. In the spring of 2009, another two wave energy converter prototypes were installed. Records of array operation were taken with two and three devices in the array. With two units, non-linear damping was used, and with three units, linear damping was employed. The point absorbers in the array are connected to the underwater substation, which is based on a 3 m3 pressure vessel standing on the seabed. In the substation, rectification of the frequency and amplitude modulated voltages from the linear generators is made. The DC voltage is smoothened by capacitors and inverted to 50 Hz electrical frequency, transformed and finally transmitted to the on-shore measuring station. Results show that the absorption is heavily dependent on the damping. It has also been shown that by increasing the damping, the standard deviation of electrical power can be reduced. The standard deviation of electrical power is reduced by array operation compared to single unit operation. Ongoing and future work include the construction and installation of a second underwater substation, which will connect the first substation and seven new WECs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2010. 114 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 711
Keyword
wave energy, wave power, wave energy converter, direct-drive, permanent magnet linear generator, point absorber, array, farm, park, offshore, marine, substation, electrical transmission system
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-112915 (URN)978-91-554-7713-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-03-05, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Polhemsalen, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-02-12 Created: 2010-01-22 Last updated: 2013-07-31Bibliographically approved
4. Submerged Transmission in Wave Energy Converters: Full Scale In-Situ Experimental Measurements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Submerged Transmission in Wave Energy Converters: Full Scale In-Situ Experimental Measurements
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Different wave power technologies are in development around the world in different stages of prototype testing. So far only a few devices have been deployed offshore at full scale for extended periods of time. Little data is published about how these different devices perform.

This thesis presents results from experiments with the full-scale offshore wave energy converters at the Lysekil research site on the Swedish west coast. The theories, experiments, measurements, performance evaluations and developments of the submerged transmission in the direct driven permanent magnet linear generator are in focus. The reciprocating submerged transmission fulfills the purpose of transmitting the absorbed mechanical wave energy through the capsule wall into the generator, while preventing the seawater from entering the capsule and reducing the life time of the converter.

A measuring system with seven laser triangulation sensors has been developed to measure small relative displacements between piston rod and seal housing in the submerged transmission with excellent accuracy for the purpose of evaluating both functional behavior and successive wear in-situ. A method for calculating relative tilt angles, azimuth angles, differential tilt angles, and successive wear in the submerged transmission has been developed. Additional sensors systems have been installed in the converter enabling correlation and a thorough investigation into the operating conditions of the transmission and the converter. The thesis presents unique results from the measurements. A data acquisition system transmits the signals from the converter on the seabed to an onshore measuring station. Results are presented in time-, frequency- and the time-frequency domain.

The results have given important information for further development of the submerged transmission, which is important to the survivability of the system. The thesis describes the status of research, and is a step that may influence future designs of wave energy devices for reaching survivability and a cost-effective renewable energy system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. 214 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 961
Keyword
Wave energy converter, direct drive, submerged transmission, piston rod, seal housing, sealing system, laser triangulation sensor, offshore measurements, relative displacement, vibrations, tilt angle, tilting, wear estimation.
National Category
Energy Systems Marine Engineering Ocean and River Engineering Energy Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-179740 (URN)978-91-554-8440-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-09-14, Polhemssalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
The Lysekil Wave Power Project
Note

Published is a preprint version of the full text and should be combined by the errata.

Available from: 2012-08-24 Created: 2012-08-21 Last updated: 2013-01-22Bibliographically approved
5. Experimental results from the Lysekil Wave Power Research Site
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental results from the Lysekil Wave Power Research Site
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents how experimental results, from wave power research performed offshore at the Lysekil research site, were obtained. The data were used to verify theoretical models as well as evaluate the feasibility of wave power as a future sustainable energy source.

The first experiments carried out at the research site was the measurement of the force in a line where one end was connected to a buoy with a diameter of 3 m and the other end to a set of springs with limited stroke length. The system is exposed to high peak forces compared to average forces. The maximum measured force in the line, when the buoy motion is limited by a stiff stopper rope is ten times the average force in that particular sea state.

The experiment performed on the first wave energy converter tested at the Lysekil Research Site is described. The infrastructure of the site is presented where the central connection point is the measuring station. The key finding is that it is possible to transform the motions of ocean waves into electrical energy and distribute it to land.

Many wave energy converters must be interconnected if large amounts of energy are to be harvested from the waves. The first submerged substation intended for aggregation of energy from wave power converters is described, with focus on the measurement and control system placed inside the substation. During this experiment period the generators were equipped with many different sensors; these measurements are explained in the thesis.

The system that aggregates power from the studied wave energy converter is regularly exposed to peak power of up to 20 times the maximum average output from the converter.

Vertical and horizontal movement of the buoy has been measured in different ways. The result is that the vertical displacement of the buoy can be measured with a simple accelerometer circuit but it is much more complicated to measure the horizontal displacement. A special method for measuring the horizontal displacement has been implemented by measuring the strain in the enclosure and the force in the line.

Abstract [sv]

Den här avhandlingen berättar om hur experimenten vid Lysekils forskningsområde för vågkraft har utförts. Insamlade mätdata har använts för att verifiera teoretiska samband som modulerats vid Elektricitetslära, Uppsala universitet. De teoretiska och praktiska resultaten har visat på att vågkraft har förutsättningarna att implementeras som en hållbar framtida energikälla. Intressanta mätmetoder har utvecklas och påfrestningarna  på utrustningin och dess samband med medel effekten har studerats.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. 101 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 957
Keyword
Wave power, Lysekil, Marine Substation, Offshore measurement, strain gauge, lateral force, Invlination and azimuth angles, Wave energy converter, Temperature measurements, Inverter, Energy, Control sustem, CompactRIO, Vågkraft, Mätteknik, Styrsystem, Lysekil
National Category
Marine Engineering Energy Systems Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Ocean and River Engineering Control Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-179098 (URN)978-91-554-8433-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-09-28, Polhem Å 10134, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Lysekils projektet
Funder
Swedish Research Council, grant no. 621-2009-3417
Available from: 2012-09-05 Created: 2012-08-07 Last updated: 2013-01-22

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Boström, CeciliaRahm, MagnusSvensson, OlleStrömstedt, ErlandSavin, AndrejWaters, RafaelLeijon, Mats

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