Basic aspects of exhaled nitric oxide
2010 (English)In: European Respiratory Monograph, ISSN 1025-448X, E-ISSN 2075-6674, Vol. 49, 1-31 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Nitric oxide (NO) in orally exhaled air mainly originates fromthe respiratory epithelium. NO is produced by inducible NOsynthase (iNOS), which is regulated by signal transducer andactivator of transcription (STAT)-1 under the influence ofhomeostatic interferon-c. In patients with asthma, iNOSexpression is upregulated by interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 viathe activation of STAT-6 in the bronchial epithelium. Thus,exhaled NO primarily signals local T-helper cell type 2-driveninflammation in the bronchial mucosa. With these character-istics, exhaled NO will be a suitable marker for predicting theresponse to inhaled corticosteroids, and to monitor the anti-inflammatory effect.The methodology for measuring exhaled NO has beenstandardised based on international consensus. The determi-nants of exhaled NO levels are fairly well characterised, withthe most important being cigarette smoking, nitrate intake, airpollution, allergen sensitisation and exposure, along withheight, sex and age. A future development may be the estima-tion of peripheral airway inflammation by measuring exhaledNO at multiple exhalation flow rates.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 49, 1-31 p.
Asthma, breath test, eosinophil, epithelium, nitric oxide, signal transducer and activator of transcription-6
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-140836DOI: 10.1183/1025448x.00028509OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-140836DiVA: diva2:384488