uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Self-administered measurement of symphysis-fundus heights
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. (Obstetrisk forskning/Axelsson)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. (Obstetrisk forskning/Axelsson)
Show others and affiliations
2007 (English)In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 86, no 6, 671-677 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background. Antenatal identification of infants small for gestational age (SGA) improves their perinatal outcome. Repeated measurements of the symphysis-fundus (SF) heights performed by midwives is the most widespread screening method for detection of SGA. However the insufficiency of this method necessitates improved practices. Earlier start and more frequent SF measurements, which could be acomplished by self-administered measurements, might improve the ability to detect deviant growth. The present study was set up to evaluate wether pregnant wome can reliable perform SF measurements by themself. Method. Forty healthy women with singelton and ultrasound-dated pregancies from 2 antenatal clinics in Uppsala, Sweden, were asked to perform 4 consecutive SF measureemnts once a week, from 20 to 25 weeks of gestation until delivery. The self-administered SF measurements were recorded and systematically compared with midwives' SF measurements. Results. Thirty-three pregnant women performed self-administered SF measurements over a 14-week period (range 1-21). The SF curves constructed from self-admiinistered SF measurements had the same shape as previously constructed population-based reference curves. The variance for self-admiinistered SF measurements was higher than that of the midwives. Conclusions. Pregnant women are capable of measuring SF heights by themselves, but with a higher individual variance than midwives. Repeated measurements at each occasion can compensate for the higher variance. The main advantage of self-administered SF measurements is the opportunity to follow fetal growth earlier and more frequently.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 86, no 6, 671-677 p.
Keyword [en]
Symphysis-fundus measurements, self-administered, intrauterine growth retardation, small for gestational age
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Obstetrics and Gynaecology
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-11151DOI: 10.1080/00016340701258867ISI: 000248084100007PubMedID: 17520397OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-11151DiVA: diva2:38919
Symphysis Fundus Measurements for Detection of Intrauterine Growth Restriction
Available from: 2007-06-04 Created: 2007-06-04 Last updated: 2011-01-28Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Symphysis Fundus Measurements for Detection of Intrauterine Growth Retardation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Symphysis Fundus Measurements for Detection of Intrauterine Growth Retardation
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A case-control study was performed to evaluate the Swedish population-based symphysis fundus (SF) reference curves. The study included 242 small for gestational age (SGA) neonates (169 term and 73 preterm infants) as cases and 296 non-SGA infants as controls. Two Swedish SF curves were evaluated. In term pregnancies they showed a sensitivity of 32 % and 51 % and a specificity of 90 % and 83 %, respectively, at a cut-off level of < - 2 SD from the mean according to the SF reference curve. The sensitivity for SGA was higher in preterm pregnancies (49 % and 58 %, respectively) and the first alarm below – 2 SD was noted before 32 weeks in 37 % and 43 % of the preterm pregnancies, respectively. (Study I)

A study of self-administered SF measurements was designed to achieve more regular and frequent SF measurements. Thirty-three women with singleton, ultrasound dated pregnancies performed SF measurements on average 14 weeks from gestational week 20 to 25 until delivery. Self-administered SF measurements were higher and had higher variance than midwives’ measurements. Four consecutive SF measurements on each occasion can compensate for higher variance. Reliable self-administered SF measurements can be obtained. (Study II)

Self-administered SF measurements from 191 women were used to construct absolute and relative SF growth references. The influence of fetal sex, maternal obesity and parity was assessed in regression models. The lnSF growth was statistically influenced by maternal obesity, and a borderline significance was recorded for fetal sex and parity. Statistical analysis and graphical displays show no evidence that the relative lnSF growth should be dependent on these variables. (Study III)

To improve detection of infants with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) rather than SGA a new statistical model (the SR method) was used. The SR method was evaluated with SF measurements from 1122 pregnant women. The sensitivity for neonatal morbidity and SGA was low, between 6 and 36 % for SGA (< -2SD). Neonates classified as SGA (< -2SD and < 10th percentile) had increased morbidity compared with the total study group. Neonates suspected to be SGA before delivery by the population-based SF measurement method had lower morbidity than those not suspected. The SR method was found not to improve detection of fetuses with increased morbidity or SGA neonates in this study. Better screening methods to detect IUGR and SGA prior to delivery are needed. (Study IV)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2010. 52 p.
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 555
symphysis-fundus measurements, small for gestational age, intrauterine growth retardation, fetal growth, self-administered, relative growth, screening method, statistical surveillance, fetal surveillance
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-122256 (URN)978-91-554-7790-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-05-21, Rosénsalen, Ingång 95-96, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, 13:15 (Swedish)
Available from: 2010-04-29 Created: 2010-04-07 Last updated: 2010-04-29Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMed

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Bergman, EvaAxelsson, Ove
By organisation
Department of Women's and Children's Health
In the same journal
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Medical and Health Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 202 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link