The atomic layer deposition growth of tungsten nitride films was demonstrated using the precursors W-2(NMe2)(6) and ammonia with substrate temperatures between 150 and 250 degrees C. At 180 degrees C, surface saturative growth was achieved with W-2(NMe2)(6) pulse lengths of >= 2.0 s. The growth rates were between 0.74 and 0.81 angstrom cycle(-1) at substrate temperatures between 180 and 210 degrees C. Growth rates of 0.57 and 0.96 angstrom cycle(-1) were observed at 150 and 220 degrees C, respectively. In a series of films deposited at 180 degrees C, the film thicknesses varied linearly with the number of deposition cycles. Films grown at 180 and 210 degrees C exhibited resistivity values between 810 and 4600 mu Omega cm. Time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis on tungsten nitride films containing a protective AlN overlayer demonstrated slightly nitrogen-rich films relative to W2N, with compositions of W1.0N0.82C0.13O0.26H0.33 at 150 degrees C, W1.0N0.74C0.20O0.33H0.28 at 180 degrees C, and W1.0N0.82C0.33O0.18H0.23 at 210 degrees C. In the absence of an AlN overlayer, the oxygen and hydrogen levels were much higher, suggesting that the films degrade in the presence of ambient atmosphere. The as-deposited films were amorphous. Amorphous films containing a protective AlN overlayer were annealed to 600 - 800 degrees C under a nitrogen atmosphere. X-Ray diffraction patterns suggested that crystallization does not occur at or below 800 degrees C. Similar annealing of films that did not contain the AlN overlayer afforded X-ray diffraction patterns that were consistent with orthorhombic WO3. Atomic force microscopy showed root-mean-square surface roughnesses of 0.9, 0.8, and 0.7 nm for films deposited at 150, 180, and 210 degrees C, respectively.
2007. Vol. 17, no 11, 1109-1116 p.