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Cultured astrocytes derived from corpus callosum or cortical grey matter show distinct glutamate handling properties
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
2009 (English)In: Journal of Neurochemistry, ISSN 0022-3042, E-ISSN 1471-4159, Vol. 108, no 6, 1442-1452 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While the astrocytic control of extracellular glutamate concentration at synaptic contacts is well characterized, little is known regarding the clearance of glutamate along axon tracts, even though local excitotoxic damage has been reported. Therefore, we have compared glutamate handling in astrocyte cultures derived from white matter (corpus callosum) and grey matter tissues (cortical structures). These populations of astrocytes showed clearly distinct phenotypes, adopting stellate or protoplasmic morphologies respectively. In addition, white matter astrocytes showed high densities of the intermediate filament proteins glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin and nestin. The glutamate-aspartate transporter and glutamate transporter-1, as well as glutamine synthetase, were found to be expressed at higher levels in white matter compared with grey matter astrocytes. Consistent with this aspartate uptake capacity was three to fourfold higher in white matter cells, and the use of specific inhibitors revealed a substantial activity of glutamate transporter-1, contrasting with grey matter cells where this transporter appeared poorly functional. In addition, expression of type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors was considerably higher in white matter astrocytes where the agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine triggered a large release of intracellular calcium. Differences in these astrocyte cultures were also observed when exposed to experimental conditions that trigger glial activation. This study highlights typical features of cultured astrocytes derived from white matter tissues, which appear constitutively adapted to handle excitotoxic insults. Moreover, the expression and activity of the astroglial components involved in the control of glutamatergic transmission are reinforced when these cells are maintained under conditions mimicking a gliotic environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 108, no 6, 1442-1452 p.
Keyword [en]
astroglial activation, glutamate transporter-1, glutamate-aspartate transporter, intermediate filaments, metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor, white matter astrocytes
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-148718DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.05889.xISI: 000263696300011PubMedID: 19222709OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-148718DiVA: diva2:402793
Available from: 2011-03-09 Created: 2011-03-09 Last updated: 2011-03-09Bibliographically approved

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