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Maintenance of gene flow by female-biased dispersal of black grouse, Tetrao tetrix in northern Sweden
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
2012 (English)In: Journal of Ornithology = Journal fur Ornithologie, ISSN 0021-8375, E-ISSN 1439-0361, Vol. 153, no 4, 1127-1139 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sex-biased dispersal is a common phenomenon in most birds. In general, males breed at or near their site of birth while most of the females disperse. We investigated the dispersal patterns and genetic structure of lekking Black Grouse Tetrao tetrix based on ten microsatellite loci. Data for 469 individuals from 25 localities spaced from 45 to 558 km apart revealed low levels of genetic differentiation and high connectivity among studied sites due to female-biased dispersal. The spatial distribution of the genetic variation did not follow an isolation by distance pattern neither for females nor for males. STRUCTURE identified three clusters of male individuals but without any geographical pattern. Only one cluster was identified for females. Several tests of sex-biased dispersal were executed. Most of them showed no difference between sexes, but the mean assignment index and F IS showed a statistically significant female-biased dispersal. Therefore, we consider that the northern Swedish Black Grouse population is a panmictic population. The amount of gene flow throughout time has been consistent with dispersal and with no strong effect of forest fragmentation in the region.

Abstract [de]

Geschlechterunterschiede bei der Auswanderung aus dem Heimatterritorium und Ausbreitung gibt es bei den meisten Vogelarten. Üblicherweise brüten Männchen in der Nähe ihres Geburtsorts, während Weibchen vermehrt abwandern. Wir untersuchten Muster in der Verbreitung und die genetische Struktur im Lek balzender Birkhühner Tetrao tetrix anhand von zehn Mikrosatelliten-Loci. Daten von 469 Individuen aus 25 Gebieten, die zwischen 45 und 558 km voneinander entfernt lagen, zeigten geringe genetische Differenzierung und hohe Konnektivität zwischen den Gebieten, gewährleistet durch die Ausbreitung der Weibchen. Die räumliche Verteilung der genetischen Variation zeigte keine Isolation durch hohe Entfernungen, weder für Männchen noch für Weibchen. Das Programm STRUCTURE fand drei Cluster für männliche Individuen, die nicht mit geographischen Mustern übereinstimmten. Bei Weibchen konnte nur ein Cluster identifiziert werden. Wir führten verschiedene Tests für geschlechtsabhängige Verbreitung durch. Die meisten fanden keinen Unterschied zwischen den Geschlechtern, aber der ‘mean assignment index’ und FIS zeigten signifikant stärkere Ausbreitung der Weibchen. Daraus schließen wir, dass die nordschwedische Birkhuhn Population panmiktisch ist. Der genetische Austausch der Populationen konnte stets durch Verteilung weiblicher Individuen erklärt werden, während die Fragmentierung der Wälder in der Region keinen großen Einfluss gehabt zu haben scheint.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 153, no 4, 1127-1139 p.
Keyword [en]
microsatellites, sex-biased dispersal, philopatry
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Population Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-150111DOI: 10.1007/s10336-012-0844-0ISI: 000308823100013OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-150111DiVA: diva2:406462
Available from: 2011-03-25 Created: 2011-03-25 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Population Genetic Structure of Black Grouse (Tetrao tetrix): From a Large to a Fine Scale Perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Population Genetic Structure of Black Grouse (Tetrao tetrix): From a Large to a Fine Scale Perspective
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) is a bird species with a lek mating system found in the Palearctic boreal taiga. It is assumed that it has a continuous distribution along Scandinavia and Siberia, whereas in Central Europe it has declined during the last decades. The primary objective of this thesis was to obtain a deeper understanding of the history, systematic classification and the genetic structure of black grouse on different geographical scales using microsatellites and control region mtDNA sequences (CR). I determined how much the mating system, habitat fragmentation and historical population processes have influenced the partitioning of genetic diversity in this species. Phylogeographical results are consistent with a demographic population expansion, and the patterns of postglacial dispersal suggest that a glacial refugium was located somewhere in central Asia, and from there black grouse spread out to Europe following the retreat of glacial ice sheets. I suggest that the two European black grouse subspecies, T. t. Tetrix and T. t. britannicus correspond to only one subspecies: T. t. tetrix, and that this lineage has diverged from T.t. viridanus, a subspecies found in Kazakhstan. The British population is significantly divergent from the remaining Eurasian samples for microsatellites but it is not for mtDNA. Therefore, they should regard as a separate Management Unit and not as a subspecies. Furthermore, British black grouse occur in three independent genetic units, corresponding to Wales, northern England/southern Scotland and northern Scotland. There was also genetic structure within Sweden. Habitat fragmentation is the main cause of population genetic structure in southern Swedish black grouse. In contrast, low levels of genetic differentiation and high connectivity were found in northern Sweden due to female-biased dispersal. On a finer geographical scale, I found genetic differences between leks due to a mixture of related and unrelated individuals within leks. However, mean relatedness values hardly differed from zero. Some leks were similar to one another and I interpret this as a result of variation in local reproductive success and philopatry. These factors would cause genetic structuring but this by itself would not reveal that kin selection is operating within black grouse leks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2011. 47 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 816
Keyword
black grouse, control region, demographic expansion, kin selection, lek, microsatellites, non-invasive sampling, postglacial colonisation, philopatry, phylogeography, sex-biased dispersal, spatial genetics, subspecies, suture zone, refugia
National Category
Biological Sciences Biological Systematics
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Population Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-150117 (URN)978-91-554-8048-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-05-13, Zootissalen, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Villavägen 9, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-04-19 Created: 2011-03-25 Last updated: 2011-05-05Bibliographically approved

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