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Depression in young adult psychiatric outpatients: delimiting early onset
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
2015 (English)In: Early Intervention in Psychiatry, ISSN 1751-7885, E-ISSN 1751-7893, Vol. 9, no 2, 108-117 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim

The aim of this study was to examine differences in childhood, adolescent and adult onset of depression.

Methods

Young psychiatric outpatients (n = 156) diagnosed with a lifetime depressive episode were divided into three groups according to age of onset of their first depressive episode: childhood (≤12 years, n = 21), adolescent (13–17 years, n = 58) and early adult onset (18–25 years,n = 77). Participants were assessed by diagnostic interviews and by questionnaires measuring previous life events and childhood developmental delays. Clinical characteristics and various risk factors were compared between groups.

Results

This clinical sample was dominated by women, with onset of their first depressive episode occurring during adolescence. Childhood onset was related to an increased number of depressive episodes, higher prevalence of personality disorders, more current social problems and more reported development delays during childhood regarding literacy learning, social skills and memory. They also reported more separation anxiety symptoms and neglect during childhood and more experiences of teenage pregnancies and abortions.

Conclusions

Childhood onset of depression is associated with more severe symptoms, more psychosocial risk factors and childhood developmental delays. Because all onset groups shared many features, the results are inconclusive if there are distinct subgroups according to age of onset.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 9, no 2, 108-117 p.
National Category
Psychiatry
Research subject
Psychiatry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-151489DOI: 10.1111/eip.12092ISI: 000351164900004PubMedID: 24118989OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-151489DiVA: diva2:410137
Available from: 2011-04-12 Created: 2011-04-12 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Young Adults in General Psychiatry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Young Adults in General Psychiatry
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Mental illness is common, and usually starts early in life. However, the majority of those affected never seek mental health care. The overall aim of this thesis was to increase knowledge about help-seeking young adults with mental illness in order to improve diagnostic procedures in clinical psychiatry.

A group of young adult psychiatric out-patients (n=217) were consecutively invited to participate in the study between October 2002 and September 2003. Altogether 200 (92%) agreed to participate. Among them, there were 161 (80%) women and 39 (20%) men. Participants’ mean age was 22.4±1.9 years. All participants were carefully and comprehensively assessed with respect to axes I, II, IV and V in the DSM-IV. Psychiatric disorders and personality disorders were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV for axis I disorders and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV for axis II disorders. Psychosocial and environmental problems (axis IV) were evaluated through structured interviewing by a social worker and by self-assessment with a questionnaire. Professional and patient ratings on the Global Assessment of Functioning scale were compared before and after treatment. Patients also reported on the Swedish universities Scales of Personality, the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Screening Inventory-Retrospect and the Coddington’s life event scale.

Taken together, the young adult, psychiatric outpatients were characterized by an early onset of their mental disorders, by co-morbidity, by being female and by having mood or anxiety disorders. There were no significant differences between self-referred and those referred by medical professionals according to either number of current or lifetime diagnoses. Childhood onset of depression was associated with more severe symptoms, more psychosocial risk factors, and more childhood developmental delays. Axis IV psychosocial stress categories were related to the presence of axis I disorders, personality disorders, co-morbidity, and impaired functioning. Agreement between patients’ and professionals’ ratings on the GAF scale was good before treatment and excellent after treatment.

In summary, the findings suggest that direct self-referral to specialized psychiatric care does not seem to be associated with overutilization of such care. Childhood onset of depression is associated with a more complex illness. The revised axis IV according to DSM-IV seems to have concurrent validity, but is still hampered by limited reliability. And finally, the results support the usefulness of the self-report GAF instrument for measuring outcome in psychiatric care.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2011. 48 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 671
Keyword
Young adults, multi-axial diagnostics, self-referred, help seeking, axis IV, axis V
National Category
Psychiatry
Research subject
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-151504 (URN)978-91-554-8070-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-05-28, Sal IX, Universitetshuset, Biskopsgatan 3, Uppsala, 10:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-05-05 Created: 2011-04-12 Last updated: 2011-07-01Bibliographically approved

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Ramirez, AdrianaEkselius, LisaRamklint, Mia

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