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Dose response of whole-grain biomarkers: alkylresorcinols in human plasma and their metabolites in urine in relation to intake
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. (Division of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Therapy)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
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2009 (English)In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 89, no 1, 290-296 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]


Alkylresorcinols (ARs), phenolic lipids almost exclusively present in the outer parts of wheat and rye grains in commonly consumed foods, have been proposed as specific dietary biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intakes.


The objective was to assess the dose response of plasma ARs and the excretion of 2 recently discovered AR metabolites in 24-h urine samples in relation to AR intake and to establish a pharmacokinetic model for predicting plasma AR concentration.


Sixteen subjects were given rye bran flakes containing 11, 22, or 44 mg total ARs 3 times daily during week-long intervention periods separated by 1-wk washout periods in a nonblinded randomized crossover design. Blood samples were collected at baseline, after the 1-wk run-in period, and after each treatment and washout period. Two 24-h urine samples were collected at baseline and after each treatment period.


Plasma AR concentrations and daily excretion of 2 urinary AR metabolites increased with increasing AR dose (P < 0.001). Recovery of urinary metabolites in 24-h samples decreased with increasing doses from ≈90% to ≈45% in the range tested. A one-compartment model with 2 absorption compartments with different lag times and absorption rate constants adequately predicted plasma AR concentrations at the end of each intervention period.


Both plasma AR concentrations and urinary metabolites in 24-h samples showed a dose-response relation to increased AR intake, which strongly supports the hypothesis that ARs and their metabolites may be useful as biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intakes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 89, no 1, 290-296 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-151534DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.26709ISI: 000262262300038PubMedID: 19056600OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-151534DiVA: diva2:410324
Available from: 2011-04-13 Created: 2011-04-13 Last updated: 2012-01-26Bibliographically approved

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