The purpose of this investigation was to examine, from a cross-cultural perspective, students’ epistemological patterns of reasoning about socioscientific issues (SSI), and to identify potential interactions of cultural and scientific identity. Mediating factors associated with students’ argumentation and discourse about SSI, as well as the public’s understanding of science, has been identified as an important area of investigation in the field of science education. This mixed-methods design included over 300 students from Jamaica, South Africa, Sweden, Taiwan, and the United States. Students responded to instruments designed to assess their epistemological conceptualizations and justifications related to distributive justice, allocation of scarce medical resources, and epistemological beliefs over five dimensions related to scientific knowledge. Four iterations of a coding scheme produced over 97% inter-rater agreement for four independent coders. Results indicate there is a consistent trend toward epistemological congruity within a given culture, and distinct emphases on how scientific knowledge is constructed among countries. Thematic Categories are compared and contrasted and connections to a model of socioscientific reasoning and implications for research and pedagogy are discussed.