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Cycling stability and self-protective properties of a paper-based polypyrrole energy storage device
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5496-9664
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
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2011 (English)In: Electrochemistry communications, ISSN 1388-2481, E-ISSN 1873-1902, Vol. 13, no 8, 869-871 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A composite consisting of polypyrrole and cellulose from the Cladophora sp. green algae is shown to exhibit excellent cycling stability when used as the electrodes in an aqueous symmetric supercapacitor device. The capacitance of the device, which was 32.4 F g− 1, only decreased by 0.7% during 4000 galvanostatic cycles employing a current of 10 mA and potential cut-off limits of 0 and 0.8 V. No change in the electrode material's morphology could be seen when comparing cycled and pristine materials with scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, no significant loss in capacitance was observed even when charging the device to 1.8 V. Measurements of the electrode potentials versus a common reference show that this effect was due to a device intrinsic self-protective mechanism which prevented degradation of the polypyrrole.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 13, no 8, 869-871 p.
Keyword [en]
Conducting polymer, Polypyrrole, Cycling stability, Composite, Cellulose
National Category
Natural Sciences Inorganic Chemistry Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials; Chemistry with specialization in Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-156540DOI: 10.1016/j.elecom.2011.05.024ISI: 000294582300032OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-156540DiVA: diva2:432169
Available from: 2011-08-01 Created: 2011-08-01 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Nanocellulose and Polypyrrole Composites for Electrical Energy Storage
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nanocellulose and Polypyrrole Composites for Electrical Energy Storage
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

To meet the predicted increase in demand for energy storage in tomorrow's society, the development of inexpensive, flexible, lightweight and sustainable energy-storage materials is essential. In this respect, devices based on electroactive organic molecules, such as conducting polymers, are highly interesting. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the use of nanocellulose as a matrix material in composites of cellulose and the electroactive polymer polypyrrole (PPy), and the use of these composites in all-polymer paper-based energy-storage devices.  

Pyrrole was polymerized using FeCl3 onto cellulose nanofibers in the form of a hydrogel. The resulting PPy-coated fibers were washed with water and dried into a high surface area, conductive paper material. Variations in the drying technique provided a way of controlling the porosity and the surface area of wood-based cellulose nanofibers, as the properties of the cellulose were found to have a large influence on the composite structure. Different nanocellulose fibers, of algal and wood origin, were evaluated as the reinforcing phase in the conductive composites. These materials had conductivities of 1–6 S/cm and specific surface areas of up to 246 m2/g at PPy weight fractions around 67%.  

Symmetrical supercapacitor devices with algae-based nanocellulose-PPy electrodes and an aqueous electrolyte showed specific charge capacities of around 15 mAh/g and specific capacitances of around 35 F/g, normalized with respect to the dry electrode weight. Potentiostatic charging of the devices was suggested as a way to make use of the rapid oxidation and reduction processes in these materials, thus minimizing the charging time and the effect of the IR drop in the device, and ensuring charging to the right potential. Repeated charging and discharging of the devices revealed a 10–20% loss in capacity over 10 000 cycles. Upon up-scaling of the devices, it was found that an improved cell design giving a lower cell resistance was needed in order to maintain high charge and discharge rates.  

The main advantages of the presented concept of nanocellulose-PPy-based electrical energy storage include the eco-friendly raw materials, an up-scalable and potentially cost-effective production process, safe operation, and the controllable porosity and moldability offered by the nanocellulose fiber matrix. Integrating energy storage devices into paper could lead to un- precedented opportunities for new types of consumer electronics. Future research efforts should be directed at increasing the energy density and improving the stability of this type of device as well as advancing the fundamental understanding of the current limitations of these properties.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. 71 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 898
Keyword
conducting polymer, polypyrrole, cellulose, nanocellulose, porosity, composite, energy storage, battery, supercapacitor
National Category
Physical Sciences
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Materials Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-168664 (URN)978-91-554-8276-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-03-30, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-03-09 Created: 2012-02-14 Last updated: 2012-03-29Bibliographically approved
2. Nanocomposites of Cellulose and Conducting Polymer for Electrical Energy Storage
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nanocomposites of Cellulose and Conducting Polymer for Electrical Energy Storage
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The world’s increased energy storage demand, as well as the environmental concerns related to the combustion of fossil fuels, has triggered a transition to intermittent renewable energy sources as well as to electrical and hybrid vehicles. Current day rechargeable batteries are, due to the invention and development of lithium ion batteries, technologically well positioned to answer to some of these demands. Conventional batteries, however, utilize inorganic materials of limited supply that require large amounts of energy during refining and processing. The materials also add a significant cost to the final product, making the rechargeable batteries less attractive for large scale applications. During the last decade, significant efforts have been made to find suitable organic matter based electrode materials that can replace the inorganic materials. One class of organic materials that can be used for electrical energy storage, or be included as components in organic matter based energy storage systems, is conducting polymers.

The aim of this thesis was to investigate the possibilities and limitations of using the conducting polymer polypyrrole in energy storage applications. The polymer was synthesized onto cellulose extracted from the Cladophora sp. algae, and the result was a flexible composite material. Symmetrical energy storage devices constructed with the composite material were shown to exhibit a pseudocapacitive behavior. The resistance in the cells was investigated and was found to scale linearly with the separator thickness. Cells could be cycled for 4,000 cycles without significant capacitance loss and cells that were overcharged to 1.8 V cell potential, were found to be protected by a resistive potential drop. Devices were constructed as proof-of-concept and were used to power a remote control and a digital thermometer.

The self-discharge in polypyrrole was studied extensively. It was found that oxygen was responsible for the oxidation of the reduced electrode, while the positive electrode self-discharged due to a faradaic reaction. Through spectroscopy and the temperature dependence of the self-discharge, it was suggested that the self-discharge of oxidized polypyrrole is linked to the degradation at high potentials, commonly referred to as overoxidation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2014. 60 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1125
Keyword
Polypyrrole, Nanocomposites, Energy storage, Conducting polymers, Cellulose
National Category
Nano Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-218815 (URN)978-91-554-8883-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-04-04, Å4001, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-03-13 Created: 2014-02-18 Last updated: 2014-04-29

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Publisher's full texthttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1388248111002220

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Olsson, HenrikStrømme, MariaSjödin, MartinNyholm, Leif

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