Recent animal studies have demonstrated that pre-treatment with inhaled carbon monoxide (iCO) exert anti-inflammatory effects in various septic models. In all these models, there is no information whether iCO might act therapeutically after the onset of septic damage. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory effects of iCO to treat established injury in a model of porcine endotoxin sepsis.
Five groups of pigs (n=6 in each group), were studied under anesthesia and mechanical ventilation: healthy control group (HC); lipopolysaccharide (LPS) groups, animals received continuous IV infusion of LPS for 6 hours; 2.5 hours after of LPS infusion treated groups received either: 250 ppm of iCO for 3.5 h, (LPS+CO group); 3 mg/Kg hydrocorti-sone bolus [Steroid (ST)], (LPS+ST group); or both steroid and iCO, (LPS+CO+ST group). Measurements of haemodynamics, blood gases, respiratory mechanics and biochemistry of organ function, were made. At the end of the experiment lung tissue was taken for analysis of histology and inflammatory markers: tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), activator protein-1 (AP-1) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR).
LPS administration induced a dramatic inflammatory injury in lungs, increased expression of TNF-α, NF-κB, AP-1, down regulation of GR, pulmonary hypertension and severe deterioration of respiratory mechanics, oxygenation and organ function. Treatment with steroids and to greater extent with iCO significantly improved the microscopic appearance of the lung but had no effect on inflammatory markers. iCO significantly decreased pulmonary hypertension induced by LPS, without an obvious protective effect on organ function.
Using this porcine sepsis model we find that treatment with iCO after the septic damage decreases pulmonary hypertension and partially protects the lung tissue from the inflammatory destruction induced by LPS but has no beneficial effects on organ function.
2011. Vol. 4, no 1, 53-66 p.