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Long-term quality-of-life outcomes after radical prostatectomy or watchful waiting: the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group-4 randomised trial.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
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2011 (English)In: The Lancet Oncology, ISSN 1470-2045, E-ISSN 1474-5488, Vol. 12, no 9, 891-899 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: For men with localised prostate cancer, surgery provides a survival benefit compared with watchful waiting. Treatments are associated with morbidity. Results for functional outcome and quality of life are rarely reported beyond 10 years and are lacking from randomised settings. We report results for quality of life for men in the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group Study Number 4 (SPCG-4) after a median follow-up of more than 12 years. METHODS: All living Swedish and Finnish men (400 of 695) randomly assigned to radical prostatectomy or watchful waiting in SPCG-4 from 1989 to 1999 were included in our analysis. An additional 281 men were included in a population-based control group matched for region and age. Physical symptoms, symptom-induced stress, and self-assessed quality of life were evaluated with a study-specific questionnaire. Longitudinal data were available for 166 Swedish men who had answered quality-of-life questionnaires at an earlier timepoint. FINDINGS: 182 (88%) of 208 men in the radical prostatectomy group, 167 (87%) of 192 men in the watchful-waiting group, and 214 (76%) of 281 men in the population-based control group answered the questionnaire. Men in SPCG-4 had a median follow-up of 12·2 years (range 7-17) and a median age of 77·0 years (range 61-88). High self-assessed quality of life was reported by 62 (35%) of 179 men allocated radical prostatectomy, 55 (34%) of 160 men assigned to watchful waiting, and 93 (45%) of 208 men in the control group. Anxiety was higher in the SPCG-4 groups (77 [43%] of 178 and 69 [43%] of 161 men) than in the control group (68 [33%] of 208 men; relative risk 1·42, 95% CI 1·07-1·88). Prevalence of erectile dysfunction was 84% (146 of 173 men) in the radical prostatectomy group, 80% (122 of 153) in the watchful-waiting group, and 46% (95 of 208) in the control group and prevalence of urinary leakage was 41% (71 of 173), 11% (18 of 164), and 3% (six of 209), respectively. Distress caused by these symptoms was reported significantly more often by men allocated radical prostatectomy than by men assigned to watchful waiting. In a longitudinal analysis of men in SPCG-4 who provided information at two follow-up points 9 years apart, 38 (45%) of 85 men allocated radical prostatectomy and 48 (60%) of 80 men allocated watchful waiting reported an increase in number of physical symptoms; 50 (61%) of 82 and 47 (64%) of 74 men, respectively, reported a reduction in quality of life. INTERPRETATION: For men in SPCG-4, negative side-effects were common and added more stress than was reported in the control population. In the radical prostatectomy group, erectile dysfunction and urinary leakage were often consequences of surgery. In the watchful-waiting group, side-effects can be caused by tumour progression. The number and severity of side-effects changes over time at a higher rate than is caused by normal ageing and a loss of sexual ability is a persistent psychological problem for both interventions. An understanding of the patterns of side-effects and time dimension of their occurrence for each treatment is important for full patient information. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health; Swedish Cancer Society; Foundation in Memory of Johanna Hagstrand and Sigfrid Linnér.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 12, no 9, 891-899 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-158092DOI: 10.1016/S1470-2045(11)70162-0ISI: 000294293500020PubMedID: 21821474OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-158092DiVA: diva2:437910
Available from: 2011-08-30 Created: 2011-08-30 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Quality of Life and Functional Outcomes in Men with Localized Prostate Cancer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quality of Life and Functional Outcomes in Men with Localized Prostate Cancer
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Quality-of-life and functional outcomes are important in the choice of treatment for men with localized prostate cancer. These issues were investigated in the present thesis.

All living 400 men randomized to radical prostatectomy or watchful waiting from 1989 to 1999 in the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group Number 4 (SPCG-4) were included. An additional 281 men compromised an age-matched control group. Physical symptoms, symptom-induced stress, sense of well-being and self-assessed quality of life were evaluated by a study-specific questionnaire.

Results showed that prostate cancer men, regardless if they were allocated to radical prostatectomy or watchful waiting were suffering of long term adverse effects, mainly erectile dysfunction, urinary leakage and voiding symptoms. In the prostatectomy group, erectile dysfunction and urinary leakage were often consequences of surgery; in the watchful waiting group the side-effects could be caused by tumor progression. The quality of life deteriorated over time. High self-assessed quality of life was reported by 35 % in the radical, 34 % in watchful-waiting, and 43 % in the control groups after a median follow-up time of 12.2 years. The SPCG-4 men significantly more often reported anxiety than did controls. Erectile dysfunction was associated with the most negative influence on quality of life in both SPCG-4 groups. Men in the prostatectomy group were more distressed by erectile dysfunction than watchful waiting. Androgen deprivation therapy had negative effects on all psychological parameters, including quality of life, for the watchful waiting but not for the prostatectomy group. Information about the prostate-cancer disease was significantly higher in the radical-prostatectomy group than in watchful waiting. Check-ups were associated with worry, especially for those on androgen deprivation therapy. Open radical prostatectomy led to an increased rate of inguinal hernia compared with robot-assisted technique.

In conclusion, the data of this thesis emphasize that it takes more than a decade to understand the patterns of adverse effects and time dimension of their occurrence for each treatment. Consideration of quality of life has a high priority to aid the ageing man through the shifting scenarios of localized prostate cancer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2011. 68 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 696
Keyword
prostate cancer, radical prostatectomy, watchful waiting, quality of life, erectil dysfunction, androgen deprivation therapy, robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, inguinal hernia, information, randomized
National Category
Urology and Nephrology
Research subject
Urology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-158094 (URN)978-91-554-8141-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-10-14, Enghoffsalen, ingång 50, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, 13:00 (Swedish)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2011-09-23 Created: 2011-08-31 Last updated: 2011-11-03Bibliographically approved

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Johansson, EvaHolmberg, LarsBill-Axelson, Anna

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