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Water transparency drives intra-population divergence in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
2012 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 8, e43641- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Trait combinations that lead to a higher efficiency in resource utilization are important drivers of divergent natural selection and adaptive radiation. However, variation in environmental features might constrain foraging in complex ways and therefore impede the exploitation of critical resources. We tested the effect of water transparency on intra-population divergence in morphology of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) across seven lakes in central Sweden. Morphological divergence between near-shore littoral and open-water pelagic perch substantially increased with increasing water transparency. Reliance on littoral resources increased strongly with increasing water transparency in littoral populations, whereas littoral reliance was not affected by water transparency in pelagic populations. Despite the similar reliance on pelagic resources in pelagic populations along the water transparency gradient, the utilization of particular pelagic prey items differed with variation in water transparency in pelagic populations. Pelagic perch utilized cladocerans in lakes with high water transparency and copepods in lakes with low water transparency. We suggest that under impaired visual conditions low utilization of littoral resources by littoral perch and utilization of evasive copepods by pelagic perch may lead to changes in morphology. Our findings indicate that visual conditions can affect population divergence in predator populations through their effects on resource utilization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 7, no 8, e43641- p.
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-158689DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043641ISI: 000308063700123OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-158689DiVA: diva2:440774
Available from: 2011-09-13 Created: 2011-09-13 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Phenotypic Processes Triggered by Biological Invasions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phenotypic Processes Triggered by Biological Invasions
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Individuals within a single population can vary widely in their phenotype e.g. in their body shape. These differences are an important source of biodiversity and they can precede evolutionary divergence within a population.

In this thesis we use the biological invasion of the zebra mussels into Swedish lakes to investigate which processes create or maintain phenotypic diversity within populations of the two native fish species perch and roach and the mussel itself. Both fishes have specially adapted body shapes that depend on whether they feed in the near-shore or open-water habitat of lakes. This habitat-specific divergence was more pronounced in lakes with zebra mussels, probably because resources in both habitats were in higher supply due to the mussels’ effects on the lakes. Divergence in perch body shapes between habitats was also higher in lakes with a higher water clarity, suggesting that visual conditions can affect the resource use and thus also the expression of a habitat-specific body shape.

When investigating the diversity of body shapes in the mussel itself we found that mussels from one lake changed their shell shape when exposed to different predators: fish predators induced a more elongated shell shape while crayfish predators induced a rounder shell. These specific shell shapes probably serve as two alternative predator defenses protecting the mussel from predation.

We conclude that the availability and use of distinct resources is an important source of diversity within populations. Abiotic conditions can play a previously underappreciated role by promoting or impairing the use of the distinct resources thus affecting the divergence. The diversity of shell shapes we found in the zebra mussels complements our study by demonstrating that not only consumer responses to resources but also resources’ responses to predators can generate phenotypic diversity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2011. 44 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 853
Keyword
Resource polymorphism, phenotypic plasticity, phenotypic divergence, anti-predator responses, Perca fluviatilis, Rutilus rutilus, Dreissena polymorpha
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Limnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-158697 (URN)978-91-554-8157-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-10-28, Ekmansalen, Norbyvägen 14, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-10-06 Created: 2011-09-13 Last updated: 2012-05-31
2. Ecology across Boundaries: Food web coupling among and within ecosystems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ecology across Boundaries: Food web coupling among and within ecosystems
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Cross-boundary movements of energy and material are ubiquitous. Freshwater ecosystems receive nutrients, dissolved, and particulate organic matter from adjacent terrestrial ecosystems, whereas terrestrial ecosystems mainly receive prey organisms and detritus deposited by physical processes such as floods from freshwater ecosystems. Within lakes, fish are considered as integrators between habitats due to their high mobility, although they often occupy either near-shore littoral or open-water pelagic habitats and develop habitat-specific morphologies. Such intra-population divergence in morphological traits might limit the use of multiple habitats.

In this thesis, I first focused on quantity and quality of reciprocal fluxes of particulate organic matter between freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems and responses of recipient consumers. Freshwater ecosystems generally received higher amounts of externally-produced resources than terrestrial ecosystems. Despite this discrepancy, aquatic and terrestrial consumer responses were similar, likely due to the differences in resource quality. Second, I investigated the potential of particulate organic carbon (POC) supporting benthic food webs in lakes; a pathway that has largely been neglected in previous studies. I found that POC can substantially subsidize the benthic food web and that the effects on the benthic food web were transferred to the pelagic habitat, thus emphasizing the importance of benthic pathways for pelagic production. Third, I examined how water transparency can affect intra-population divergence in perch (Perca fluviatilis). I observed that increased water transparency can considerably increase morphological divergence between littoral and pelagic populations likely due to its effects on foraging. Finally, I investigated the effects of such intra-population divergence on littoral-pelagic food web coupling. I found that low morphological divergence corresponded with high overlap in resource use, whereas strong morphological divergence resulted in low overlap in resource use. Here littoral populations mainly utilized littoral resources and pelagic populations primarily utilized pelagic resources, indicating that habitat coupling might be strongly limited when intra-population divergence is high.

In conclusion, although different ecosystems seem separated by distinct physical boundaries, these boundaries are often crossed. However, the development of habitat-specific adaptive traits might limit movement between apparently contiguous habitats.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2011. 48 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 881
Keyword
cross-ecosystem, food web, habitat coupling, terrestrial-aquatic linkages, subsidy, allochthonous, lake ecosystem, population divergence, trait variation
National Category
Biological Sciences Ecology
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Limnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-160783 (URN)978-91-554-8222-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-12-16, Friessalen, Evolutionary Biology Centre (EBC), Norbyvägen 18, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-11-24 Created: 2011-10-31 Last updated: 2012-01-03

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Hirsch, Philipp ESvanbäck, RichardEklöv, Peter

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