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Ranking the performance of lubricants, tool steels and PVD coatings for the forming of high strength steel using pin-on-disc testing
Högskolan Dalarna, Materialvetenskap.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology.
2009 (English)In: Tool09: Tool steels, june 2nd-4th 2009 in aachen, germany, 2009Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The increasing use of high strength steels in a variety of mechanical engineering applications has illuminated problems associated with galling in sheet metal forming operations. Galling is a tribological phenomenon associated with transfer of material from the steel sheet to the tool surface during forming resulting in seizure of the tool/steel sheet contact and extensive scratching of the steel sheet surface. As a result, a number of concepts have been developed in order to reduce the tendency to galling in sheet metal forming, including the development of new dry lubricants, new forming tool steel grades and improved surface engineering treatments such as the deposition of low friction CVD- and PVD-coatings. In the present study the potential performance of these concepts in the forming of hot and cold rolled high strength steel as well as electro and hot-dip galvanized high strength steel has been evaluated using pin-on disc testing. In the tests, two different lubricants, a dry lubricant and a pre-lube oil, two different cold work tool steels, a conventional steel grade and a nitrogen alloyed PM steel grade, and two different PVD coatings, (Ti,Al)n and CrC/C, were evaluated. Post-test examination of the tribosurfaces using FEG-SEM, EDX and 3D surface profilometry was performed in order to evaluate the mechanisms controlling the material transfer and wear. In summary, the results show that the laboratory testing combined with post-test microscopy and surface analysis give valuable information in order to rank the galling resistance of lubricants, tool steels and PVD-coatings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009.
Keyword [en]
sheet metal forming, high strength steels, galling, dry lubricant, tool steels, PVD-coatings
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Tribo Materials
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-159384OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-159384DiVA: diva2:444676
Conference
Tool09
Available from: 2011-09-29 Created: 2011-09-29 Last updated: 2012-07-18
In thesis
1. Galling of high strength steels and stainless steels in sheet metal forming as evaluated using pin-on-disc testing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Galling of high strength steels and stainless steels in sheet metal forming as evaluated using pin-on-disc testing
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The thesis focuses on the problem galling in sheet metal forming operations. Galling occurs when sheet metal transfers from the sheet surface onto the tool surface and causes surface damages to following sheets in the forming operation. When this happens the tool must be replaced causing production stops and additional expenses.

The increasing use of high strength steel grades combined with the desire to use more environmentally friendly or no lubricants exposes the tools used for sheet metal forming for tougher forming conditions with higher contact pressures and thus an increasing risk for material pick-up and galling. To prevent this new tool steels, lubricants and coatings have been developed. In this thesis a number of tool steels, high strength steels, stainless steels, coatings and lubricants have been investigated with the test method pin-on-disc testing in order to explain how different premises, such as chemical composition, mechanical properties and surface topography influence on the galling tendency in sheet metal forming.

The results show that there is a big difference in performance between a conventional cast tool steel and a powder metallurgy tool steel with respect to the galling tendency. The results also show that the surface topography of both the tool steels and the sheet materials influence on the performance of the lubricants and the galling tendency.   

When coating a tool steel, the substrate hardness is of greatest importance for the performance and wear of the coating. For the different coatings investigated, the performance of the coatings depends on whether the sheet material is zinc coated or not. However, the CrC/C coating investigated show a good performance with respect to the galling tendency in contact with all of the investigated high strength steel grades.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2012. viii+30 p.
Keyword
Galling, sheet metal forming, high strength steels, stainless steels
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Tribo Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-164717 (URN)978-91-506-2266-9 (ISBN)
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-07-18 Created: 2011-12-23 Last updated: 2012-07-18Bibliographically approved

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Eriksson, Jenny

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