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Microglial heparan sulfate proteoglycans mediate pro-inflammatory signaling
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Microglia are the central nervous system’s (CNS) first line of defense against pathogenic insults and acute inflammatory responses are necessary for the resolution of infection. However, unregulated and/or chronic activation of microglia is associated with neurodegeneration. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) have been attributed various roles in inflammation, but the possibility that HSPGs are integral to pro-inflammatory signaling mechanisms has not been fully explored. To analyze the relevance of microglial HSPGs in the pro-inflammatory response we isolated primary microglia from mice overexpressing human heparanase (Hpa-tg), the HS-degrading endoglucuronidase, and challenged them with the pro-inflammatory endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The LPS-induced upregulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) was inhibited in Hpa-tg microglia, as was upregulation of the LPS-receptor CD14. Analysis of HSPG structures revealed that Hpa-tg microglia produced truncated HS chains. Importantly, co-treatment of microglia with heparin attenuated LPS-induced cytokine upregulation. Together these findings implicate microglial HSPGs as key facilitators of the pro-inflammatory response. Astrocytes constitute a critical support network in the CNS, but are also implicated in inflammation. LPS induced comparable levels of TNF-α in Hpa-tg and Ctrl astrocytes, indicating that the mechanism of HSPG-dependent inflammation is specific to microglia.  We conclude that microglial HSPGs are required for pro-inflammatory signaling events and that heparanase, through its HS-degrading activity, can regulate this mechanism.

National Category
Neurosciences Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-159923OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-159923DiVA: diva2:447492
Available from: 2011-10-12 Created: 2011-10-11 Last updated: 2011-11-10
In thesis
1. Heparan Sulfate in the Amyloidosis and Inflammation of Alzheimer’s Disease
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heparan Sulfate in the Amyloidosis and Inflammation of Alzheimer’s Disease
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, with extensive evidence implicating the misfolding, aggregation and deposition of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide as central to the pathogenesis. Heparan sulfate (HS) is an interactive glycosaminoglycan, attached to core proteins as HS proteoglycans (HSPGs). HSPGs are present on cell surfaces and in the extracellular matrix where they facilitate multiple signaling functions, but HS is also consistently present in all amyloid deposits, including those of AD. In amyloidosis HS has been studied as an aggregation template, promoting fibril formation and serving a scaffold function in the resulting deposits. The objective of this thesis was to assess how cell surface HS is potentially implicated in Aβ amyloidosis and the associated neuroinflammation of AD.  

In AD brain we determined that HS predominantly accumulated in Aβ deposits with dense cores and found glial-expressed HSPGs within these deposits. Aβ elevated HSPG levels in primary glial cultures, implicating activated glia as one source of the Aβ-associated HS. Next, we determined that microglial HSPGs are critical for the upregulation of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α following exposure to lipopolysaccharide, an established inflammatory insult. Together these results raise the possibility that Aβ-induced expression of microglial HSPGs may promote neuroinflammation.  

Multiple mechanisms of Aβ toxicity have been proposed and different Aβ assemblies exert their toxicity through alternative routes. We found that three different preparations of Aβ aggregates all exhibited HS-dependent cytotoxicity, which in part correlated with Aβ internalization. Furthermore, heparin treatment attenuated Aβ cytotoxicity and uptake. In Aβ-positive AD microvasculature, HS deposited with Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and its receptor, the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1). In cell culture, HS and LRP1 co-operated in Aβ interactions and the addition of ApoE increased the levels of cell-associated Aβ in a HS- and LRP1-dependent manner. This ApoE-mediated increase in cell-associated Aβ may promote toxicity and vascular degeneration, but equally HS-mediated internalization of Aβ could represent a clearance route across the blood-brain-barrier.

The findings presented here illustrate multiple roles for cell-surface HSPGs in interactions relevant to the pathogenesis of AD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2011. 72 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 710
Keyword
Alzheimer’s disease, amyloidosis, amyloid-β, apolipoprotein E, astrocytes, glia, heparanase, heparan sulfate, heparan sulfate proteoglycans, microglia, neuroinflammation
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology Neurosciences
Research subject
Geriatrics; Cell Research; Neuroscience; Pathology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-159927 (URN)978-91-554-8183-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-11-24, Rudbecksalen, Rudbeck Laboratory, Dag Hammarskjölds väg 20, 75185, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-11-02 Created: 2011-10-11 Last updated: 2016-04-06Bibliographically approved

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