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Evaluation of the discrepancy between pH and lactate in combined fetal scalp blood sampling
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. (Obstetrisk forskning/Axelsson)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. (Obstetrisk forskning/Axelsson)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. (Obstetrisk forskning/Axelsson)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. (Obstetrisk forskning/Axelsson)
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2011 (English)In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 90, no 10, p. 1088-1093Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective. To evaluate the rate of discrepancy between pH and lactate values in fetal blood sampling (FBS). To evaluate differences in obstetric management in response to combined tests (pH and lactate) and single tests (pH or lactate).

Design. Descriptive study.

Setting. Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden. Population. Labors monitored by FBS during one year (n=241).

Methods. Discrepancy in the combined tests was defined as a test having one abnormal and one normal value. Abnormal pH was defined as 7.24 or lower and abnormal lactate as 4.2 or higher. The results were categorized according to whether the test was normal or abnormal and according to whether it was a combined or single analysis. Main outcome measures. Discrepancy between pH and lactate values in combined tests. Frequency of operative delivery for fetal distress (ODFD). Time interval from the last FBS to ODFD.

Results. In the combined tests with abnormality, a discrepancy between pH and lactate values occurred in 55%. The mean time interval from the last FBS to ODFD was longer in combined tests with one abnormal compared with two abnormal test results, 75 vs. 37 minutes (p<0.05). Operative delivery for fetal distress was performed less often after combined tests than after single tests: 41/62 (66%) vs. 19/20 (95%) (p<0.05).

Conclusion. In the combined test, discrepancies were common and occurred in half of the samples with an abnormality. Obstetric management was influenced by the discrepancy between test results with respect to ODFD rates and the time interval from the last FBS to delivery.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 90, no 10, p. 1088-1093
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-159948DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0412.2011.01228.xISI: 000295595100005PubMedID: 21707554OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-159948DiVA, id: diva2:447515
Available from: 2011-10-12 Created: 2011-10-12 Last updated: 2018-02-17Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Birth asphyxia: Fetal scalp blood sampling and risk factors for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Birth asphyxia: Fetal scalp blood sampling and risk factors for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Preventing birth asphyxia is a major challenge in delivery care. The aims of this thesis were to evaluate fetal scalp blood sampling (FBS) and explore risk factors for moderate to severe neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE).

In a study of 241 deliveries monitored by FBS, a discrepancy between pH and lactate (one abnormal and one normal value) was common (55%) in combined FBS. We found that the frequency of operative deliveries for fetal distress (ODFD) was lower when both pH and lactate were analysed in FBS compared with analysis of only pH or lactate, without affecting neonatal outcome. (Study I)

In a questionnaire study, women (n = 51) monitored by FBS generally tolerated the test well. Women without epidural, with higher body mass index (BMI), and with less cervical dilatation had higher pain ratings compared with their counterparts. The obstetricians that performed the test generally experienced the test as easy to perform, but more complicated with high maternal BMI, less cervical dilatation, and higher station of the fetal head. (Study II)

In a national cohort of 692 428 live births ≥ 36 weeks, risk factors for moderate to severe HIE were identified. We found a linear association between increasing maternal BMI and decreasing maternal height and risk of HIE. Compared with non-short (≥156 cm) and normal weight (BMI<25 kg/m2) women, short and overweight women had a threefold risk of HIE. (Study III)

Obstetric emergencies occurred in 29% of HIE cases, more commonly in parous (37%) than in nulliparous (21%) women. Among nulliparous women, shoulder dystocia was most common, with the strongest association to HIE. In parous women without previous caesarean, shoulder dystocia was most common, but placental abruption had the strongest association to HIE. Among parous women with previous caesarean, uterine rupture was the most prevalent, with the strongest association to HIE. (Study IV)

Conclusions: Combined FBS might decrease the frequency of ODFD. FBS is well tolerated in women and generally uncomplicated for the obstetrician to perform. Women with short stature and overweight have increased risk of having an infant with HIE. Obstetric emergencies are common underlying causes of HIE, especially in parous women.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2018. p. 81
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1435
Keywords
asphyxia, fetal scalp blood sampling, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, obstetric emergencies, operative deliveries for fetal distress, overweight, short stature
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-340782 (URN)978-91-513-0250-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-04-26, Rosénsalen, Ing 95/96, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, 13:15 (Swedish)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2018-04-03 Created: 2018-02-17 Last updated: 2018-04-24

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Liljeström, LenaWikström, Anna-KarinHanson, UlfÅkerud, HelenaJonsson, Maria

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