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Replacing dairy fat with rapeseed oil causes rapid improvement of hyperlipidaemia: a randomized controlled study
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
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2011 (English)In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 270, no 4, 356-364 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background. Rapeseed oil (RO), also known as canola oil, principally contains the unsaturated fatty acids 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 and may promote cardiometabolic health.

Objective. To investigate the effects on lipoprotein profile, factors of coagulation and insulin sensitivity of replacing a diet rich in saturated fat from dairy foods (DF diet) with a diet including RO-based fat (RO diet).

Design. During a 2 x 3-week randomized, controlled, cross-over trial, 20 free-living hyperlipidaemic subjects were provided with isocaloric test diets that differed in fat composition alone. Blood lipoprotein profile, coagulation and fibrinolytic factors and insulin sensitivity (euglycaemic clamp) were determined before and after the dietary intervention.

Results. All subjects completed the study, and compliance was high according to changes in serum fatty acids. The RO diet, but not the DF diet, reduced the levels of serum cholesterol (-17%), triglycerides (-20%) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-17%), cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio (-21%), apolipoprotein (apo) B/apo A-I ratio (-4%) and factor VII coagulant activity (FVIIc) (-5%) from baseline. These changes were significantly different between the diets (P = 0.05 to P < 0.0001), except for FVIIc (P = 0.1). The RO diet, but not the DF diet, modestly increased serum lipoprotein( a) (+6%) and tended to increase the glucose disappearance rate (K-value, +33%). HDL cholesterol, insulin sensitivity, fibrinogen and tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels did not change from baseline or differ between the two diets.

Conclusions. In a diet moderately high in total fat, replacing dairy fat with RO causes a rapid and clinically relevant improvement in serum lipoprotein profile including lowering of triglycerides in hyperlipidaemic individuals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 270, no 4, 356-364 p.
Keyword [en]
cholesterol, coagulation, diet, fatty acids, lipoproteins
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-160127DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2011.02383.xISI: 000295096600009OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-160127DiVA: diva2:448585
Available from: 2011-10-17 Created: 2011-10-17 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Dietary Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Risk: Influence on Lipoproteins, Insulin Resistance and Liver Fat
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dietary Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Risk: Influence on Lipoproteins, Insulin Resistance and Liver Fat
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis was to investigate how dietary fatty acids affect the risk for cardiometabolic disease, i.e. cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes and obesity. The overall hypothesis was that unsaturated fatty acids and especially the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) linoleic acid (LA), 18:2n-6, would decrease cardiometabolic risk compared with saturated fatty acids (SFAs), in line with current recommendations to partly replace dietary SFA with PUFA.

Papers I and V were observational studies based on the community-based cohort Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM). Adipose tissue fatty acid composition was determined as biomarker for dietary fat intake. Studies II, III and IV were randomised short-term interventions on human volunteers, in which different dietary fats were provided to the participants.

In 71-year-old men, adipose tissue LA and α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) were associated with insulin sensitivity (euglycaemic clamp), although this association was diminished for LA after adjusting for lifestyle variables. Different SFA displayed divergent associations; only palmitic acid (16:0) was inversely associated with insulin sensitivity (Paper I). In Cox regression analyses, LA was modestly associated with decreased all-cause mortality, but not CVD mortality during 15 years follow-up (Paper V).

In a 3+3-week cross-over study on 20 weight-stable volunteers with dyslipidaemia, all foods were provided. A rapeseed oil-based diet distinctly lowered low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides compared with a dairy-fat based diet (butter, cream and fatty cheese). Insulin sensitivity or coagulation factors were not affected (Paper II).

In a 10-week randomised trial on 67 abdominally obese participants, PUFA (mostly sunflower oil) decreased liver fat compared with SFA (mostly butter) under isocaloric conditions. In individuals considered highly compliant to study diets, lipoproteins were also decreased during the PUFA diet (Paper III).

In a 7-week double-blind randomised trial on 41 healthy volunteers, PUFA (sunflower oil) decreased the total:HDL cholesterol ratio compared with SFA (palm oil) during moderate weight gain (1.5 kg) (Paper IV).

In conclusion, LA (PUFA) intake is associated with decreased cardiometabolic risk compared with higher SFA intake, overall supporting a beneficial role of non-tropical vegetable oils in place of solid fats in preventing fatty liver and cardiometabolic disorders.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. 74 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1111
Keyword
Linoleic acid, Palmitic acid, PUFA, SFA, n-6 fatty acids
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Medical Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-252066 (URN)978-91-554-9264-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-08-21, Auditorium Minus, Museum Gustavianum, Akademigatan 3, Uppsala, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-05-29 Created: 2015-04-28 Last updated: 2015-07-07Bibliographically approved

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