Magnetism, chemical spots, and stratification in the HgMn star ϕ Phoenicis
2012 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 539, A142- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Context. Mercury-manganese (HgMn) stars have been considered as non-magnetic and non-variable chemically peculiar (CP) starsfor a long time. However, recent discoveries of the variability in spectral line profiles have suggested an inhomogeneous surfacedistribution of chemical elements in some HgMn stars. From the studies of other CP stars it is known that magnetic field plays a keyrole in the formation of surface spots. All attempts to find magnetic fields in HgMn stars have yielded negative results.Aims. In this study, we investigate the possible presence of a magnetic field in ϕ Phe (HD 11753) and reconstruct surface distributionof chemical elements that show variability in spectral lines.We also test a hypothesis that a magnetic field is concentrated in chemicalspots and look into the possibility that some chemical elements are stratified with depth in the stellar atmosphere.Methods. Our analysis is based on high-quality spectropolarimetric time-series observations, covering a full rotational period ofthe star. Spectra were obtained with the HARPSpol at the ESO 3.6-m telescope. To increase the sensitivity of the magnetic fieldsearch, we employed the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique. Using Doppler imaging code INVERS10, we reconstructedsurface chemical distributions by utilising information from multiple spectral lines. The vertical stratification of chemical elementswas calculated with the DDAFit program.Results. Combining information from all suitable spectral lines, we set an upper limit of 4 G on the mean longitudinal magnetic field.For chemical spots, an upper limit on the longitudinal field varies between 8 and 15 G. We confirmed the variability of Y, Sr, and Tiand detected variability in Cr lines. Stratification analysis showed that Y and Ti are not concentrated in the uppermost atmosphericlayers.Conclusions. Our spectropolarimetric observations rule out the presence of a strong, globally-organised magnetic field in ϕ Phe.This implies an alternative mechanism of spot formation, which could be related to a non-equilibrium atomic diffusion. However, thetypical time scales of the variation in stratification predicted by the recent time-dependent diffusion models exceed significantly thespot evolution time-scale reported for ϕ Phe.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 539, A142- p.
stars: chemically peculiar, stars: individual: Phi Phe, stars: variables: general
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Research subject Astronomy with specialization in Astrophysics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-160291DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201118167ISI: 000303262000149OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-160291DiVA: diva2:450340